Posttranslational modifications to p53 in response to genotoxic and non-genotoxic stresses.
The bar at the bottom represents the human 393 amino acid p53 polypeptide; functional regions are indicated and posttranslational modification sites (see previous figure) are indicated above the bar; S, serine; T, threonine; K, lysine. Filled circles (phosphorylation) or squares (acetylation) indicate modifications in response to the indicated stress (left); open symbols indicate no change in modification in response to stress. No symbol indicates the site has not been examined; a "?" indicates conflicting literature reports; a down arrow indicates treatment induced a decrease in site modification. Thr55, Ser376 and Ser378 have been reported to be constitutively phosphorylated; Thr55 and Ser376 are dephosphorylated in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylation may be cell-type specific, and Ser6, 9, 33, 315, and 392 may be constitutively phosphorylated at low levels in some cell lines.
Updated from Anderson and Appella, in Handbook of Cell Signaling, Academic Press, 2003.
Last Modified: October 11, 2011