During this 500th Brookhaven Lecture, Bill Studier explains how basic research on a simple virus enabled development of the T7 expression system. Since it was patented in 1984, more than 1,000 companies have licensed the T7 system to produce proteins for commercial purposes, including medical diagnostics and treatments.
During this 499th Brookhaven Lecture, Dmitry Polyansky explains how artificial photosynthesis—inspired by plants' natural ability to convert sunlight to usable energy—can help meet future energy demands. He also highlights progress, challenges, and strategies for developing catalysts to convert solar energy into energy-packed fuels as efficiently as possible.
During this 498th Brookhaven Lecture, Marc-Andre Pleier of the Physics Department provides an overview of the Standard Model of fundamental particles and interactions as well as the Higgs discovery in 2012. He then discusses how he and fellow ATLAS collaborators use the detector to search for "fingerprints" of the rare W-boson scattering process, flaws or breakdowns in the Standard Model, and potential areas to discover new physics.
During the 497th Brookhaven Lecture, Taku Izubuchi explained how scientists use a four-dimensional lattice and increasingly powerful supercomputers for calculations that address questions of quantum chromodynamics, the theory of "strong" interactions between subatomic quarks and gluons that form protons and neutrons of our universe.
During the 496th Brookhaven Lecture, Lijuan Ruan explained how she uses electron-positron tomography from quark-antiquark annihilations to study chiral symmetry, a characteristic that "broke" to form 99 percent of the visible mass in the universe and is thought to be restored during ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider.
During the 495th Brookhaven Lecture, Istvan Dioszegi discussed the principles of neutron imaging and advancements to verify nuclear warheads, as well as why and how the technique might become a tool for verification under terms of the New START treaty.
During the 494th Brookhaven Lecture, Matthew Eisaman explained solar cells' important role in meeting the world's energy demands, the U.S. Department of Energy's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of solar cell-generated electricity by 2020, and solar cell research at Brookhaven Lab.
During the 493rd Brookhaven Lecture, Anne Sickles discussed how physicists determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). She then explained how collisions at RHIC enable physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force.
During the 492nd Brookhaven Lecture, Michael Jensen explained the importance of clouds in the Earth's climate system and how convective clouds form, grow, and dissipate. His discussion included findings from a major experiment designed to provide a holistic view of convective clouds and their environment.
During the 491st Brookhaven Lecture, Juergen Thieme explained benefits of spectroscopy and more intense x-rays at NSLS-II for next-generation research. Specifically, he discussed the new sub-micron-resolution x-ray spectroscopy (SRX) beamline—highlighting its speed, adjustability, and versatility.
During the 490th Brookhaven Lecture, Björn Schenke discussed theory that details the shape and structure of heavy ion collisions. He also explained how this theory and data from experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider are being used to determine properties of quark-gluon plasma.
During the 489th Brookhaven Lecture, Dejan Trbojevic discussed accelerator technologies and techniques —"particularly a non-scaling, fixed-focused alternating gradient"—to focus particle beams using fewer, smaller magnets. He explained how these technologies could benefit eRHIC and particle therapies for combating cancer.
In the 488th Brookhaven Lecture, Luo discusses some collider fundamentals. He then introduces the electron lens system he helped develop at Brookhaven, explaining how it could help double the collision rate at RHIC and prepare the machine for future endeavors.
In the 487th Brookhaven Lecture, Stephen Schwartz speaks about his research on why Earth's temperature has not increased as much as expected from the observed increase in greenhouse gases, and what this might mean for the future.
In the 486th Brookhaven Lecture, Yong Chu illustrates unique challenges and innovative approaches for x-ray microscopy at the nanoscale — measured in billionths of a meter. He also discusses measurement capabilities for the first science experiments at NSLS-II.
In the 484th Brookhaven Lecture, Thomas Graham explains the events that led to policy decisions on nuclear weapons in the mid-20th century. He also discusses how forces that drove the U.S. and former Soviet Union to stockpile large numbers of nuclear warheads are applicable in today's decisions on the size and types of nuclear weapons in arsenals among China, India and Pakistan.
In the 483rd Brookhaven Lecture, Andrei Fluerasu discusses how techniques called coherent x-ray scattering and x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy, and the future National Synchrotron Light Source II will provide unprecedented capabilities for studying the structure and dynamics of complex materials.
In this 481st Brookhaven Lecture, Vladimir Litvinenko describes the cutting-edge developments accelerator physicists are planning along the path to new, exciting science at RHIC. He explains new techniques, including coherent electron cooling, generating a high-current, polarized electron beam, and ways of suppressing a myriad of potential instabilities.
In this 480th Brookhaven Lecture, Goldhaber Fellow Ben Babst talks about how innovating scientists in the Lab's Medical Department are using a technique called positron emission tomography, or PET imaging — commonly used to diagnose cancer and study brain activity — to investigate plants' abilities to make substances for biofuels that could one day power our vehicles, homes, and industry.
In the 478th Brookhaven Lecture Darío Arena explains the fundamentals of magnetic materials — including a concept called angular momentum, which can be illustrated by a balancing gyroscope — as well as researchers' tools and techniques for investigating these materials at BNL's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS).
In the 477th Brookhaven Lecture, Roman Samulyak discusses developing mathematical models accurate and reliable enough for simulated experiments to replace actual experiments. He explains how supercomputers and numerical tools are being used to investigate turbulence, design components for future muon colliders, and evaluate ideas for nuclear fusion.
In the 476th Brookhaven Lecture, Gianluigi De Geronimo discusses basic principles of microelectronics. He then explains how Brookhaven's Instrumentation Division collaborates with scientists to develop unique application-specific integrated circuits for detectors that enable discoveries, push research, and change lives.
In the 475th Brookhaven Lecture Tom Watson discusses how perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology can be viewed as a hammer looking for nails. The colorless, odorless and safe gases have a number of research uses, from modeling how airborne contaminants might move through urban canyons to help first responders plan their response to potential terrorist attacks and accidents to locating leaks in underground gas pipes.
In the 474th Brookhaven Lecture Oleg Gang discusses how Brookhaven scientists have devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations.
Eric Dooryhee explains that a synchrotron is an exceptionally powerful source of light (from x-rays to infrared), which permits fast, sensitive experiments to be done without damage on minute samples of objects, using a range of analytical techniques and allowing measurements to be made below the surface.
Physicist Michiko Minty explains how bunches of particles traveling in opposite directions in each of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider’s (RHIC) two superconducting rings are guided, focused, and accelerated to nearly the speed of light and then made to collide. She describes how to ensure the highest possible collision rates by establishing head-on collisions between the two-foot-long bunches which, at the interaction points, are a width comparable to a human hair.
One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of New York on behalf of Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit applied science and technology organization.