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Educational Programs
Brookhaven National Lab
Bldg. 438 - P.O. Box 5000
Upton, NY 11973-5000
Phone: (631) 344-4503
Fax: (631) 344-5832

Nuclear Nonproliferation, Safeguards, and Security

in the 21st Century


Course Outline- Week 3

New Threats, New Approaches

New threats began emerging in the 1990s. The NPT was jolted by clandestine programs in Iraq and North Korea and then Libya and Iran. Globalization of technology provided new sources of supply for clandestine networks. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War weakened political constraints, and failing states and emerging states with weak infrastructures have meant that domestic controls on dangerous materials were inadequate. Illicit trafficking burgeoned, and a significant terrorist threat became evident. However, the strategic threat continued to abate, and new initiatives began.

Topics include:

  • Nonproliferation and counterproliferation
  • New proliferation threats
  • Khan's Network
  • Terrorism, UNSC Resolution 1540
  • Special arrangements - Cooperative Threat Reduction, Material Protection, Control and Accounting
  • Securing the bomb
  • The Prague agenda
  • Role of intelligence
  • Radiological threats
  • Tutorial - demonstrations on detecting nuclear & other radioactive materials


Leonard Weiss, "Turning a Blind Eye Again? The Khan Network's History and Lessons for U.S. Policy," Arms Control Today. (March 2005).

Peter van Ham and Olivia Bosch, “Global Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism: The Role of Resolution 1540 and Its Implications,” chapter 1 in Olivia Bosch and Peter van Ham, editors, Global Non-Proliferation and Counter-Terrorism. (Brookings 2007).

Caitlin Talmadge, “The Lessons of U.S.-Russian Materials Security Cooperation,” The Nonproliferation Review. (March 2005).

Lawrence Scheinman, “The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: A Challenge for Nonproliferation,” Disarmament Diplomacy (March/April 2004).

Thomas D. Lehrman, “Rethinking Interdiction – The Future of the Proliferation Security Initiative,” The Nonproliferation Review (Summer 2004).

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Last Modified: December 2, 2010
Please forward all questions about this site to: Cathy Osiecki