Table 2-2. BNL Pollution Prevention, Waste Reduction, and Recycling Programs.      
Waste Description Type of Project Pounds Reduced, Reused, Recycled or Conserved in 2008 Waste Type Potential Costs for Treatment & Disposal Cost of Recycle, Prevention Estimated Cost Savings Project Description Details *
Recycling containers Recycling 600 Industrial waste 3000 $3,253 $0.00 Purchased 34 sets of recycling containers to increase recycling rates in conference rooms.
Timer switches* Energy conservation N/A Greenhouse gas N/A $3,415 $5,386 Installation of motion detector and IR lighting in in labs in Bldg 535
Water timers Water conservation 80,000 Potable water N/A $580 $164 Water timers allow the taps to be shut off after a specific amount of time running or a specified number of gallons is released, saving water and  energy required to run the still.
Motion sensors for labs* Energy conservation N/A Greenhouse gas N/A $4,320 $5,817 Installation of motion detector lighting in common areas of Buildings 490 and 463.
“Bio Circle Cleaner” parts washer Substitution 640 Hazardous waste $10,000 $4,461 $10,000 Eliminates the need for toxic solvents, chemical storage, and disposal associated with the cleaning of vacuum parts.
Aerosol can disposal system Recycling 528 Hazardous waste $12,000 $0 $12,000 Empty aerosol cans are recycled as scrap, rather then sent to the Waste Management Division as hazardous waste. Eight units (F&O=5; CA=1; NSLS=1; BES =1) each handle 66 lbs of hazardous waste.
Portable closed-head drum mixer Neutralization 1,600 Hazardous waste $9,720 $0 $9,720 The National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) bought a closed drum mixer to neutralize Rydlyme, used to descale cooling pipes.  
Formaldetox Source reduction 8 Non-hazardous waste (neutralized approx 1 gallon)   $25 $0 $25 Neutralizes nonhazardous para-formaldehyde, chlorix, bleach, and rat blood.
HPLC solvent recycler Reuse 110 Hazardous waste $2,500 $0 $6,755 Allows reuse of approximately 50 liters of solvent and saves  approximately 50 labor hours.
Propane cylinder de-valver Recycling 75 Hazardous waste $7,500 $0 $7,500 The Collider Accelerator Division bought a propane cylinder de-valver to avoid sending cylinders to a disposal vendor at $75 each; they are now recycled as scrap.
Fluorescently-labeled oligonucleotides Waste minimization 3,144 Radiological waste (396 ft3); Mixed waste (35 gallons);  Hazardous Waste (108 gallons) $67,600 $0 $67,600 This project was cost-shared with Biology. The process avoids the use of radioactivity, thus avoiding radiological waste generation.  This process won a 2008 DOE P2 Star Award.
Electronic recycling Recycling 106,545 E-waste N/A $2,300 N/A The Laboratory has partnered with a government-based e-waste recycler (UNICOR) which guarantees that its e-waste is recycled in the most environmentally friendly manor. BNL pays shipping fees to the recycling facility.
Building demolition recycling Recycling 7,200,000 Industrial waste $327,600 $32,000 $295,600 On-site demolition products (steel and concrete) are segregated, recycled, and reused.
System One parts cleaner Substitution 640 Hazardous waste $10,000 $0 $10,000 Plant Engineering bought a System One parts washer to re-distill dirty solvent, eliminating the need for a vendor, such as Safety Kleen. Removed grit and sludge are mixed with the waste oil.  
Photon-counting spectro-fluorimeter Substitution 54 Mixed waste (2 ft3) $29,792 $0 $79,792 Eliminated the need for radioactive assays and their radioactive waste. Savings include 1,000 work-hours and savings on material costs.
Replacement of mercury utility devices Substitution 40 Mercury $2,350 $4,000 $2,350 Approximately 48 lbs of mercury-containing devices were removed from utility devices during 2008. Savings are based on the cost of one mercury spill and cleanup.
Animal bedding conveying system  Composting 84,000  Low-level Radiological Waste  $841,428 $0 $841,428 Animal bedding material is no longer sent to sanitary landfill. It is now conveyed to a dumpster that is emptied or composted at the stump dump.
Plant Engineering grounds vehicle wash system * Waste minimization 8,000 Oils/grease to soils $16,000 $3,000 $13,000 This multi-year, multi-department project was completed in 2007 and eliminates the potential of oil and grease being released to soil.
Organic solvents Substitution 678 Hazardous waste $1,694 $0 $26,000 A Microwave Peptide Synthesizer, in Life Sciences, significantly reduces the hazardous wastes generated and saves ~1,000 work-hours/year (reflected in cost savings).
Organic solvents Purification/ reuse 44 Hazardous waste $110 $0 $3,510 The primary savings of the BES solvent purification system are in not purchasing new solvent and labor savings from not running the stills. 
Cooling water Reuse 63,400 Deionized water $0 $0 $7,925 A closed-cycle water recycling system for the Building 480 melt spinner saved 7,925 gallons of ultra-pure water and extends the life expectancy of equipment worth $100,000. 
Mercury utility devices Substitution 37 Mercury $2,300 $0 $2,300 Plant Engineering replaced mercury-containing utility devices with mercury-free equipment in 2007. Savings are based on the cost of one mercury spill and cleanup.
Radioactive emissions Emission reduction 0 Radioactive emissions $0 $0 $0 A shroud was installed over the 16-inch diameter shaft in the Hot Cell of the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer, isolating cooling water from the rapidly moving air of the exhaust system and allowing radiological decay within the water system. Slowing the diffusion into the hot cell air will effectively reduce gaseous emissions into the exhaust stack, as these radionuclides have very short half lives. The shroud/ enclosure has been instrumental in reducing short-lived radioactive gaseous emissions. Beyond the environmental benefits associated with the project and due to the efficiency of the enclosure in reducing emissions, the facility has been able to stay below the emissions level that would require additional regulatory burdens.
Radioactive waste generated through wet chemistry Waste minimization 30 Mixed waste/ Liquid radioactive waste $17,600 $0 $22,500 The use of a Kinetic Phosphorescence Analyzer (KPA) system for uranium analysis eliminated mixed waste generation in a chemistry lab, reduced 90 percent of the volume of liquid waste, 90 percent of radioactive material handled, minimized exposure to uranium by Laboratory personnel, and decreased labor costs by 75 percent.
Radioactive waste from labeled chemicals Waste minimization/ volume reduction 0 Solid radioactive waste $2,168 $0 $2,168 A vial crusher for glass vials, pipettes, and other glassware reduces the volume of rad waste.
Radioactive and mixed wastes from radio-labeled chemicals Waste minimization 112 Mixed waste  $27,690 $0 $27,690 Use of a microplate scintillation counter generates less mixed waste. 
Electrophoretic Mini-Gels Microscale chemical use 2,200 Hazardous waste - lab pack $11,500 $0 $11,500 Minimizing silver waste from silver-staining electrophoretic mini-gels saves waste disposal costs and lowers material purchase costs ($6,000).
Film and other radioisotopic imaging  Substitution 300 Hazardous waste/ Industrial waste $5,468 $0 $5,468 Replacement of film-based autoradiography and other radioisotopic imaging with a Phosphor Imager reduced  waste generation by 200 lbs of hazardous waste and 100 lbs of industrial waste. Additional projected savings are in annual supply costs and labor reduction. 
Lead acid batteries Recycled 7,440 Universal waste $30,132 $0 $30,132 Avoids hazardous waste disposal costs for approximately 40 lbs of lead per battery.
Ion exchange wastewater Source reduction 1250 Hazardous and sanitary wastewater $3,125 $0 $3,125 Prefilters, added to the deionization system, polish makeup water entering the ion exchange system. This extends the useful life of the ion exchange resins, requiring less frequent regeneration. The regeneration process generates hazardous and sanitary waste. 
Short half-life waste Decay in storage 490 Radioactive waste $16,389 $0 $16,389 Short half-life isotopes, particularly iodine-125 and phosphorus-32, are often used in life sciences experiments. In 2007, wastes from these operations (21.5 ft3 and 133 lbs of liquid) were managed in accordance with BNL decay-in-storage requirements, rendering the wastes eligible for volumetric release.  
Cooling Tower chemicals Source reduction 9,563 Industrial waste $22,500 $0 $22,500 Ozone water treatment units were installed on cooling towers at SEM, the National Space Radiation Laboratory, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Research Facility for biological control of cooling water. These systems eliminate the need for water treatment chemicals (typically toxic biocides), save labor, and reduce analytical costs for monitoring cooling tower blowdown. 
Blasocut machining coolant Recycled/ Reused 26,720 Industrial waste $71,154 $0 $76,754 Central Shops Division operates a recycling system that reclaims Blasocut machining coolant and supplies it Laboratory-wide. In 2008, 3,340 gal (26,720 lb) of Blasocut lubricant were recycled. Recycling involves aeration, centrifuge, and filtration. This avoids cost of disposal as industrial waste and an avoided cost of buying seven drums of concentrate ($800/drum) and 67 empty drums for shipping ($50/drum).
Used motor oil Energy recovery 12,000 Industrial waste $31,860 $0 $31,860 Used motor oil from the motor pool and the on-site gas station is given to Strebel's Laundry Service to fire their boilers. In 2008, they collected 1,500 gallons of oil at no charge to BNL, which avoided the costs for disposal and 30 shipping drums ($50/drum).
Office paper Recycled 301,180 Industrial waste $15,963 $0 $15,963 Cost avoidance based on $106/ton for disposal as trash.
Cardboard Recycled 294,220 Industrial waste $15,594 $0 $15,594 Cost avoidance based on $106/ton for disposal as trash.
Metals Recycled 920,610 Industrial waste $48,792 $0 $140,853 Cost avoidance based on $106/ton for disposal as trash, plus $150/ton revenue.
Bottles/cans Recycled 39,140 Industrial waste $2,074 $0 $2,074 Cost avoidance based on $106/ton for disposal as trash.
Construction debris Recycled 604,760 Industrial waste $13,607 $0 $13,607 Cost avoidance based on $45/ton difference for disposal as trash
  TOTALS 9,688,918   $1,666,235 $41,300 $1,823,682  
* Cost savings of projects funded by the BNL Pollution Prevention Council will be tracked for 3 years.