FACE Program |
The goal of FACE science is to study the effects of elevated [CO2]
(and in some cases other factors associated with global change)
on plants and ecosystems under as close to real world conditions as
possible. The principal aims are:
- To advance the understanding of the processes that regulate the carbon
balance of ecosystems, including feedbacks between carbon, nutrient, and
- To understand the impact of elevated [CO2] on ecosystem
function and structure.
Individual FACE experiments
outline their specific research goals and maintain a list of publications on
their web sites. Below we have
listed some of the review or synthesis papers that summarize the
current state of FACE Science.
- Leakey ADB, Ainsworth EA, Bernacchi CJ, Rogers A, Long SP, Ort DR (2009)
Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen and water
relations: six important lessons from FACE. Journal of Experimental
Botany. 60, 2859-2876.
- Ainsworth EA, Beier C, Calfapietra C, Cuelemans R, Durand-Tarfid M, Godbold
DL, Hendrey GR, Hickler T, Kaduk J, Karnosky DF, Kimball BA, Körner
C, Koorneef M, LaFarge T, Leakey ADB, Lewin KF, Long SP, Manderscheid R,
McNeil DL, Mies TA, Miglietta F, Morgan JA, Nagy J, Norby RJ, Norton RM,
Percy KE, Rogers A, Soussana J-F, Stitt M, Weigel H-J, White JW (2008)
Next generation of elevated [CO2] experiments with crops: A
critical investment for feeding the future world. Plant, Cell &
Environment. 31, 1317-1324.
- Ainsworth EA, Rogers A (2007) The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO2]: mechanisms and
environmental interactions. Plant, Cell & Environment 30,
- Long SP, Ainsworth EA, Leakey ADB, Nösberger J,
Ort DR (2006) Food for Thought: Lower-than-expected crop yield
stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations. Science
312, 1918-1921. (pdf).
- Rogers A, Ainsworth EA, Kammann C (2006) FACE value, perspectives on
the future of Free Air CO2 Enrichment Studies. In: Managed
Ecosystems and CO2 (eds J. Nösberger, S.P. Long, R.J. Norby,
M. Stitt, G.R. Hendrey, H. Blum), pp.431-449. Springer, Berlin
Heidelberg New York. (pdf)
- Ainsworth EA & Long SP (2005) What have we
learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic
review of responses to rising CO2 in photosynthesis, canopy properties and
plant production. New Phytologist. 165, 351-372. (pdf)
- Norby RJ et al. (2005) Forest response to
elevated CO2 is conserved across a broad range of productivity.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA
102, 18052-18056. (pdf)
- Long SP et al. (2004) Rising
atmospheric carbon dioxide: Plants FACE the future. Annual Review of
Plant Biology. 55, 591-628. (pdf)
- Nowak RS et al. (2004)
Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 – do
photosynthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early
predictions? New Phytologist. 162, 253-280. (pdf)
- Zak DR, et al. (2003) Soil nitrogen cycling under elevated CO2: A
synthesis of forest FACE experiments. Ecological Applications. 13,
- Kimball BA et al. (2002) Responses of agricultural crops to free-air CO2
enrichment. Advances in Agronomy. 77, 293-368.
If you think we're missing a key FACE review or synthesis
paper please let us know.
Last Modified: August 12, 2009
FACE is a program of the
Biological and Environmental Research (BER) - U.S. Department of Energy. Please forward all questions
or comments about this site to: