Beam Ion Species and Energies Used Previously at NSRL
|Maximum Intensity 
(ions per spill)
|H-1||50 - 2500||6.4 x 1011||1.26 - 0.21|
|He-4||300||0.88 x 1010||1.413|
|C-12||135 - 1000||1.2 x 1010||21.21 - 8.01|
|O-16||100 - 1000||0.4 x 1010||47 - 14|
|Ne-20||300||0.10 x 1010||35.34|
|Si-28||94 - 1000||0.3 x 1010||151 - 44|
|Cl-35||500 - 1000||0.2 x 1010||80 - 64|
|Ar-40||350||0.02 x 1010||105.8|
|Ti-48||150 - 1000||0.08 x 1010||265 - 108|
|Fe-56||100 - 1000||0.2 x 1010||494 - 150|
|Au-197||100 - 165||1 x 107||4123 - 3066|
|Solar Particle Event||50 - 1000||Various||1.26 - 0.21|
 Different isotopes of some ions are also available. With the commissioning of EBIS, the Electron Beam Ion Source, virtually all ion species will be available.
 In general it has become fairly routine to change beam energy, and if a beam energy is not listed in this table, there is not necessarily any reason why it cannot be tuned up at the request of a user.
 Intensity per spill refers to the number of ions delivered each spill. The spill structure during most radiobiology exposures has a 3.8 second repetition time. During the 3.8 second period, the ions are extracted more or less uniformly in time during a 0.3-0.4 second spill, followed by a ~3.4 second beam-off time. These intensities were achieved using the Tandem Van De Graaff as the ion source. When using EBIS, the intensities are significantly lower.
 LET, or Linear Energy Transfer is calculated for a water target and is in units of keV per micron. More detailed LET distributions can be viewed here.
Last Modified: April 24, 2012
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