Bibliography

Principal Investigator: V.M. Fthenakis
Most reports are available, send requests for reprints to: Fthenaki@bnl.gov

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2012

244. Kim H-C, Fthenakis V., Life Cycle Energy and Climate Change Implication of Nanotechnologies: A Critical Review, Journal of Industrial Ecology, in press.

243. Anctil A. and Fthenakis V., Recyclability Challenges in “Abundant” Material-Based Technologies, 6DO.10.1, 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, GER, Sept. 2012.

242. Fthenakis V., Betita R., M. Shields, R. Vinje and J. Blunden, Life Cycle Analysis of High-Performance Monocrystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Systems: Energy Payback Times and Net Energy Production Value, 6CV.4.14, 27th European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Frankfurt, GER, Sept. 2012.

241. Raugei M., Fullana-i-Palmer P., Fthenakis V., The energy return on energy investment (EROI) of photovoltaics: Methodology and comparisons with fossil fuel life cycles. Energy Policy (2012), published on line doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2012.03.00897.

240. Fthenakis V., PV Energy ROI Tracks Efficiency Gains, Solar Today, 26(4), 24-26, 2012. www.solartoday.org

239. Fthenakis V.M., Sustainability metrics for extending thin-film photovoltaics to terawatt levels. MRS Bulletin, Vol. 27, April 2012, pp. 425-430.

238. Anctil and V. Fthenakis V. , GHG Emissions and EPBT of PVPS in the NE-US, IEEEPVSC, 2012

237. Fthenakis V. and Anctil A. , Direct Te Mining: Resource Availability and CdTe PV LCA, IEEEPVSC, 2012

236. V. Fthenakis, How long does it take for photovoltaics to produce the energy they use? National Association of Professional Engineers Magazine, February 2012

235. V. Fthenakis (d) - New Book -3rd Generation Photovoltaics, InTech Open Publishers

234. Annick Anctil and Vasilis Fthenakis, Life Cycle Assessment of Organic Photovoltaics, in 3rd Generation Photovoltaics, InTech Open Publishers

233. Robert McConnell and Vasilis Fthenakis, Concentrated Photovoltaics, in 3rd Generation Photovoltaics, InTech Open Publishers

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2011

232. Kim H.C., Fthenakis V. Choi JK, Turney D., Heath G. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions Emissions of Thin-film Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization, Journal of Industrial Ecology, in press.

233. Wolden C, Kurtin J., Baxter J., Repins I., Shaheen S., Torvik J., Rockett A., Fthenakis V., Aydil E. , Photovoltaic Manufacturing: Present Status and Future Prospects, J. Vac. Sci. Technolo. A 29(3), 030801-16, 2011.

231. Kim H.C. and Fthenakis V.M., Comparative Life Cycle Energy Payback Analysis of multi-junction a-SiGe and nanocrystalline /a-Si modules, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 19, 228-239, 2011.

230. Fthenakis V.M. and Kim H.C., Photovoltaics: Life-cycle analyses, Solar Energy, 85, 1609-1628, 2011.

229. Turney D. and Fthenakis V., Environmental Impacts from the Installation and Operation of Large-Scale Power Plants, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 3261-3270, 2011.

228. Fthenakis V.M. and Kim H.C., Life Cycle Assessment of High-Concentration PV systems, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, in press.

227. Fthenakis V.M., R. Frischknecht, M. Raugei, H. C. Kim, E. Alsema, M. Held and M. de Wild-Scholten, 2011, Methodology Guidelines on Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Electricity, 2nd edition, IEA PVPS Task 12, International Energy Agency(IEA) PVPS Task 12, Report T12-03:2011.

226. Fthenakis V.M., H. C. Kim, R. Frischknecht, M. Raugei, P. Sinha, M. Stucki , 2011, Life Cycle Inventories and Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaic Systems, International Energy Agency(IEA) PVPS Task 12, Report T12-02:2011.

225. Hsu D. Fthenakis., Heath G., Kim H.C., G V. Choi JK, Turney D. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization, Journal of Industrial Ecology, in press.

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2010

224. Choi J.K. and Fthenakis V.M., Economic Feasibility of Photovoltaic Module Recycling: Survey and Model, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 14 (6), 947- 964, 2010.

223. Fthenakis V.M., Clark D., Moalem M., Chandler P., Ridgeway R., Hulbert F., Cooper D. and Maroulis P., Nitrogen Trifluoride Emissions from Photovoltaics: A Life-Cycle Assessment, Environ. Sci. Technol, 2010, 44 (22), pp 8750–8757.

222. Fthenakis V.M. and Kim H.C., Life-cycle of water in U.S. electricity generation, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14(7), 2039-2048, 2010. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.03.008.

221. Choi J.K. and Fthenakis V.M., Design and Optimization of Photovoltaics Recycling Infrastructure, Environ. Sci. Technol, 44(22), 8678-8683, 2010.

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2009

220. Fthenakis V.M., Sustainability of photovoltaics: The case for thin-film solar cells, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 2746-2750, 2009.

219 Fthenakis V.M., and Kim H.C, Land Use and Electricity Generation: A Life Cycle Analysis, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 1465-1474, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2008.09.017

218. Fthenakis V.M., Wang W. and Kim H.C, Life Cycle Inventory Analysis in the Production of Metals used in Photovoltaics, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13, 493-517, 2009.

217. Fthenakis V. Mason J. and Zweibel K., The Technical, Geographical and Economic Feasibility for Solar Energy to Supply the Energy Needs of the United States, Energy Policy, 37, 387-399, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2008.08.011

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2008

216. Mason J., Hansen T., Fthenakis V.. and Zweibel K., Coupling PV and CAES Power Plants to Transform Intermittent PV Electricity into a Dispachable Electricity Source, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 16, 649-668, 2008.

215. Zweibel K., Mason J. and Fthenakis V. Solar Grand Plan: Solar as a Solution, Sun & Wind Energy, 4 (2008) 112-117.

214. Fthenakis V.M., S. Gualtero, van der Meulen R., and Kim H. C., Comparative Life-cycle Analysis of Photovoltaics Based on Nano-materials: A Proposed Framework. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceeding Vol. 1041, R01-03, 2008.

213. Kim H. C. and Fthenakis V. M. The Fuel Cycles of Electricity Generation: A Comparison of Land Use. Materials Research Society Symposium Proceeding Vol. 1041, R05-03, 2008.

212. Fthenakis V.M., Mason J. and Zweibel K., A Grand Plan for Solar Energy: Starting form the United States, Proceedings 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-4 Sept. 2008, 6BO.8.5, pp. 3695-3699.

211. Fthenakis V. and Kim H.C., Life Cycle Analysis of two new Concentrator PV Systems, Proceedings 23rd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Valencia, Spain, 1-4 Sept. 2008, 1DV.3.46, pp. 909-913.

210. Fthenakis V.M., Kim H.C. and Alsema E, Emissions from Photovoltaic Life Cycles, Environmental Science and Technology, 2008, 42, 2168-2174.

209. Zweibel K., Mason J. and Fthenakis V., A Solar Grand Plan, Scientific American, 298(1), 64-73, 2008.

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2007

208. Alsema E. PV Fact Sheet PV Energy Payback Times.

207. Fthenakis V. PV Fact Sheet PV External Costs.

206. Raugei M., P. Frankl, E. Alsema, M. de Wild-Scholte, V. Fthenakis, H.C. Kim, Life Cycle Assessment of Present and Future Photovoltaic Systems, presented at Renewable Energy 2007 Symposium on “Expectations and Advanced Technologies in Renewable Energy", Chiba, Japan, 11 October, 2007.

205. Fthenakis V.M. Presentation at the European Industry Association (EPIA) PV Industry Forum:International Energy Agency (IEA) PVPS Task 12: Environment, Health and Safety, Milan, Italy, September 5, 2007.

204. Fthenakis V. and Kim H.C., Cu(InGa)Se2 Thin-Film Solar Cells: Comparative Life-Cycle Analysis of Buffer Layers, 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3-7 September 2007.

203. deWild-Scholten M., Alsema E., Fthenakis V., Agostinelli G., Dekkers H., Roth K., Kinzig V., Fluorinated Greenhouse Gases in Photovoltaic Module Manufacturing: Potential Emissions and Abatement Strategies, 22nd European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Milan, Italy, 3-7 September 2007.

202. Fthenakis V.M., Expert testimony to the California Energy Commission, Nuclear Issues Workshop, Environmental, Safety and Economic Implications of Nuclear Power: Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Risks, Sacramento, California, June 28, 2007.

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2006

201. Fthenakis V.M. Photovoltaics Life Cycle Analysis, Invited plenary presentation, Renewable Energy 2006, Chiba, Japan, October 11, 2006

200. Fthenakis V.M. and Kim H.C., Greenhouse gas Emissions from Solar Electric and Nuclear Power: A Life Cycle Study, Energy Policy, 35, 2549-2557, 2007.

199. Fthenakis V.M. and Alsema E., Photovoltaics Energy Payback Times, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and External Costs: 2004-early 2005 Status, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 14:275-280, 2006.

198. Fthenakis V.M., CdTe Photovoltaics: Life-cycle Environmental Profile, European Material Research Society Meeting (EU-MRS), Symposium O, Invited Paper, Nice, France, May 29-June 2, 2006.

197. Mason J., Fthenakis V.M., Hansen T. and Kim C. Energy Pay-Back and Life Cycle CO2 Emissions of the BOS in an Optimized 3.5 MW PV Installation, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 14, 179-190, 2006.

196. Kim H.C. and Fthenakis V.M, Amonix High-Concentrator Photovoltaic system: Life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006.

195. Fthenakis V.M., Quantifying the life-cycle environmental profile of photovoltaics and comparisons with other electricity-generation technologies, IEEE 4th World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Hawaii, May 8-12, 2006.

194. de Wild-Scholten M.J., Alsema E., ter Horst E.W., Bachler M. and Fthenakis V.M., A Cost and Environmental Impact Comparison of Grid-Connected Rooftop and Ground-Based PV Systems, 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006.

193. Alsema E., de Wild-Scholten M.J. and Fthenakis V.M., Environmental Impacts of PV Electricity Generation - A Critical Comparison of Energy Supply Options, 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006.

192. Fthenakis V.M., Duby P., Wang W., Graves C. and Belova A., Recycling of CdTe Photovoltaic Modules: Recovery of Glass, Cadmium and Tellurium, 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006.

191. Fthenakis V.M., Kim H.C., Colli A., and Kirchsteiger C., Evaluation of Risks in the Life Cycle of Photovoltaics in a Comparative Context, 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006.

190. Fthenakis V.M., Carlisle C., and Chan W., Silane Safety in Amorphous Silicon and Silicon Nitride Operations, 21st European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference, Dresden, Germany, 4-8 September 2006.

189. Fthenakis V.M. and Wang W., Extraction and Separation of Cd and Te from Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Manufacturing Scrap, Progress in Photovoltaics, 14:363-371, 2006.

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2005

188. Fthenakis V.M. Life Cycle Analysis: Some Science and Energy Policy Issues. Department of Earth & Environmental Engineering, Fall 2005 Seminar Series, September 30, 2005.

187. Fthenakis V.M. Photovoltaics and the Environment, 407th Brookhaven National Laboratory Lecture, Sept. 21, 2005.

186. Fthenakis V.M. and H.C. Kim, Life Cycle Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Embedded in Electricity Generated by Thin Film CdTe Photovoltaics, MRS Conference, Nov. 05, Boston, MS

185. Fthenakis V.M. and H.C. Kim, Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas emissions from the Nuclear and Photovoltaic Fuel Cycle, MRS Conference, Nov. 05, Boston, MS.

184. Fthenakis V.M. and Wang W., Advances on Recycling of CdTe and CIGS Photovoltaic Modules, 20th EURPVSEC, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-10, 2005.

183. Fthenakis V.M. and Wang W., Emission Factors in the Production of Materials Used in Photovoltaics, 20th EURPVSEC, Barcelona, Spain, June 6-10, 2005.

182. Fthenakis V., Promising Advances in Photovoltaics, Critical Issues Editorial, Chemical Engineering Progress, 101(4), 5, 2005.
 
181. Wang W. and Fthenakis V.M., Feasibility of Recycling of Cadmium-Telluride Photovoltaics, The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) Extraction & Processing Division (EPD) Congress 2005, pp. 1053-1064.

180.  Fthenakis V.M., Alsema E., and M.J. de Wild-Scholten, Life Cycle Assessment of Photovoltaics: Perceptions, Needs, and Challenges, 31st IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Jan. 3-7, 2005, Orlando, FL.

179. Fthenakis V.M., Fuhrmann M., Heiser J. Lanzirotti A., Fitts, J. and Wang W., Emissions and Encapulation of Cadmium in CdTe PV Modules During Fires, Progress in Photovoltaics Research and Applications, 13:713-723, 2005.

178. Wang W. and Fthenakis V.M., Kinetics Study on Separation of Cadmium from Tellurium in Acidic Solution Media Using Ion-Exchange Resin, Journal of Hazardous Materials, B15, 80-88, 2005.

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2004

177. Wang W. and Fthenakis V.M., Separation of Cadmium from Cadmium-Tellurium-Containing Waste Streams, Recycling Task -Progress Report I, April 19th, 2004.

176. Fthenakis V.M., Heiser J. and Fuhrmann M. and Wang W., Experimental Investigation of Emissions and Redistribution of Elements in CdTe PV Modules During Fires, 19th European Photovoltaic Energy Conference, Paris June 2004.

175. Fthenakis V.M., Life Cycle Impact Analysis of Cadmium in CdTe PV Modules, 19th European Photovoltaic Energy Conference, Paris June 2004.

174. Fthenakis V.M., Life Cycle Analysis of Cadmium in CdTe Photovoltaic Modules, EEC Workshop on Life Cycle Analysis of Solar Modules, March 18, 2004.

173. Wang W. and Fthenakis V.M., Leaching of Cadmium, Tellurium and Copper from Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Modules, Recycling Task -Progress Report I, February 3, 2004.

172. Fthenakis V. Life Cycle Impact Analysis of Cadmium in CdTe PV Production, Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, 8, 303-334, 2004.

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2003

171. Fthenakis V. and Bulawka A., Photovoltaics, Environmental Health and Safety Issues, Chapter in Encyclopedia of Energy, Academic Press, 2003.

170. Fthenakis V., Overview of Potential Hazards, Chapter VII in Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics: Fundamentals and Applications, (Editors: T. Markvart and L. Gastaner), Elsevier, 2003.

169. Fthenakis V., The Role of Hazard Analysis in PV Manufacture, 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC-3, May 12-16, 2003, Osaka, Japan.

168. Fthenakis V., EHS Issues in III-V Solar Cell Manufacturing, 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC-3, May 12-16, 2003, Osaka, Japan.

167. Morris S. and Fthenakis V., MARKAL Analysis of PV Capacity and CO2 Emissions/ Reduction in the US, 3rd World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, WCPEC-3, May 12-16, 2003, Osaka, Japan.

166. Fthenakis V. and Zweibel K., CdTe PV: Real and Perceived EHS Risks, Presented at the NCPV and Solar Program Review Meeting, March 24-26, 2003, Denver, CO.

165. Fthenakis V., CdTe : Facts and Handy Comparisons, Prepared for NREL thin film Partnership, January 20, 2003.

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2002

164. Fthenakis V., Could CdTe PV Modules Pollute the Environment?, BNL Draft Report, November 2002.

163. Fthenakis V. and Bowerman B., III-V Photovoltaics -An Update of EH&S Issues, BNL Draft report, July 2002.

162. Fthenakis V., Thompson T., Smiglieski K., Rose D. and Trammell S., Environmental Health and Safety Tutorial, 29th IEEE-PVSC, May 20, 2002.

161. Lemley J., Fthenakis V. and Moskowitz P., Security Risk Analysis for Chemical Facilities, AIChE Process Safety Progress in press.

160. Fthenakis V. Checklist for EH&S Audits, Excel "smart" spreadsheet.

159. Fthenakis V., Process Hazard Analysis, Environmental Health and Safety Tutorial, 29th IEEE-PVSC, May 20, 2002.

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2001

158. Fthenakis V., Options for Greenhouse Gas Abatement from Exhaust Streams, BNL Report, September 2001

157. Bowerman B. and Fthenakis V., EH&S Analysis of Dye-Sensitized Photovoltaic Solar Cell Production, BNL Report, September 2001.

156. Morris S.C, Goldstein G. and Fthenakis V.M., NEMS and MARKAL-MACRO Models for Energy-Environmental-Economic Analysis: A Comparison of the Electricity and Carbon Reduction Projections, Submitted to the Journal Environmental Modeling and Assessment.

155. Fthenakis V., Multi-layer Protection Analysis for Photovoltaic Manufacturing Facilities, Presented at the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) 35th Annual Loss Prevention Symposium, Houston, TX, April 23, 2001. Process Safety Progress, 20(2), 1-8, 2001.

154. Fthenakis V.M., Multi-layer Hazard Management for Manufacturing Facilities, Semiconductor Safety Association (SSA) Annual Symposium, New Orleans, LA, April 13, 2001. http://www.semiconductorsafety.org/meetings/results.php3 

153. Fthenakis V., Regulations on Photovoltaic Module Disposal and Recycling, BNL Informal Report, January 29, 2001.

152. Fthenakis V., End-of-Life Management and Recycling of PV Modules, Energy Policy Journal, 28, 1051-1058, 2000.

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2000

151. Fthenakis V.M. and Moskowitz P.D., Photovoltaics: Environmental, Safety and Health Issues and Perspectives, Progress in Photovoltaics, Millennium Issue, 8, 27-38, 2000.

150. Morris S.C and Fthenakis V.M., Learning-Curve-Based Projections of PV Penetration and subsequent Reductions of CO2 Emissions in the US, Progress Report, April 2000.

149. Fthenakis V.M., A review of Recent Silane Explosion Tests, NCPV 2000 Program Review Meeting, April 17-19, 2000, Denver, CO.

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1999

148. Fthenakis V., (editor) Proceedings of the Pb-free Solder Technology Transfer Workshop, October 19, 1999, Vail, CO, Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL-67536.

147. Fthenakis, V.M., Morris, S.C., Moskowitz, P.D., and Morgan D., Toxicity of CdTe, CIS and CGS, Progress in Photovoltaics, 7, 489-497, 1999.

146. Fthenakis, V.M., The Impact of RCRA and TCLP on PV Solder Options. Presented at the Sandia Solder-Joint Durability Symposium, Feb. 18-19, 1999, Albuquerque, NM.

145. Fthenakis, V.M. and Themelis, N., Assessing and Managing Risks in Engineering. Earth matters. Columbia Earth Institute, Winter 1998-99, 20-21, 1999.

144. Fthenakis, V.M. and Morris, S.C., Learning-Curve-Based Projections of PV Penetration and Subsequent Reductions of CO2 Emissions in the US. Preliminary Short Note, August 1999.

143. Fthenakis, V.M., Zweibel, K., and Moskowitz, P.D. (editors), Proceedings of the Photovoltaics and the Environment 1998, Workshop, July 23-24, 1998, Keystone, CO. Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL-52557, Feb. 1999.

142. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., The Value and Feasibility of Proactive Recycling, NCPV Program Review Meeting, Sept. 8-11, 1998. Denver CO; (AIP) Conference Proceedings 462, (ed. Al-Jassim et al.), pp. 332-337. American Institute of Physics, Woodbury, NY, 1999.

141. Eberspacher, C., Pre-treatment of Off-Specification PV Plates. Short Report, July, 1999.

140. Ciccarelli, G. Fthenakis, V.M., and Boccio, J., A Method of Analysis for Gas Explosions: H2Se case study. Journal of Loss Prevention, 12, 157-165, 1999.

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1998

139. Ebersphacher, C., Disposal and Recycling of End-of-Life CdTe and Si PV Modules. Draft Report, Feb. 1998.

138. Zweibel, K., Moskowitz, P.D., and Fthenakis, V.M., Thin-Film Cadmium Telluride Photovoltacs: ES&H Issues, Solutions, and Perspectives, NREL/TP-520-24057, Feb. 1998.

137. Fthenakis, V.M. and Lee, J.C., The Impact of Photovoltaics on CO2 Emissions’ Reduction in the US. The World Resource Review, 10(3), 435-445, 1998.

136. Fthenakis, V.M., Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Materials in PV Facilities. Presented at the Environmental Aspects of PV Power Systems, International Energy Agency (IEA) Expert Workshop, Utrecht, The Netherlands, June 25-27, 1997. Progress in Photovoltaics, 6, 91-98, 1998.

135. Fthenakis, V.M., MARKAL-MACRO: A Computer Tool for Integrated Energy-Environmental-Economic Analysis. Presented at the Workshop PV and the Environment, Keystone, CO, July 23-24, 1998, Paper 2-4, BNL-52557, 1998.

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1997

134. Eberspacher, C. and Fthenakis, V.M., Disposal and Recycling of End-of-Life PV Modules, 26th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Anaheim, California, pp. 1067-1072, 1997.

133. Fthenakis, V.M., Software Survey: DEGATEC- A Windows version of DEGADIS, J. Loss Prevention, 10(2), 135-137, 1997.

132. Morgan, L.M., Shines, C.J., Jeter, S.P., Blazka, M.E., Elwell, P.E., Wilson, R.E., Ward,S.M., Price, H.C., and Moskowitz, P.D., Comparative Pulmonary Absorption, Distribution and Toxicity of Copper Gallium Diselenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and Cadmium Telluride in Sprague-Dawley Rats, Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 147, 399-410, 1997.

131. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Emerging Photovoltaic Technologies: Environmental and Health Issues Update, 14th NREL/SNL Photovoltaics Program Review. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings 394, pp. 903-914, 1997.

130. Lee, J.C., Fthenakis, V.M., Morris, S.C., Goldstein, G., and Moskowitz, P.D, Projected Photovoltaic Energy Impacts on U.S. CO2 Emissions: An Integrated Energy-Environmental Economic Analysis. Progress in Photovoltaics, 5, 277-285, 1997.

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1996

129. Eberspacher, C., Fthenakis, V.M., and Moskowitz, P.D., Environmental Issues Related to Commercializing CuInSe2-Based Photovoltaics, BNL-63334, July 1996.

128. Reaven, S.J., Moskowitz, P.D., and Fthenakis, V.M., Model Institutional Infrastructures for Recycling of Photovoltaic Modules, BNL 63172, January 1996.

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1995

127. Morgan, L.M., Shines, C.J., Jeter, S.P., Wilson, R.E., Elwell, P.E., Price, H.C., and Moskowitz, P.D., Acute Pulmonary Toxicity of Copper Gallium Diselenide, Copper Indium Diselenide, and Cadmium Telluride Intratracheally Instilled into Rats. Environmental Research 71, 16-24, 1995.

126. Moskowitz, P.D., Bernholc, N.M., Fthenakis, V.M., Pardi, R.M., Steinberger, H., and Thumm, W., Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Related to the Production and Use of Cadmium Telluride Photovoltaic Modules. Advances in Solar Energy: An Annual Review of Research and Development (ed. K.W. Boer), Vol. 10, Chapter 4, pp. 211-245. American Solar Energy Society, Inc., Boulder, CO, 1995.

125. Moskowitz, P.D., An Overview of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues in the Photovoltaic Industry, Solar Cells and Their Applications (ed. L.D. Partain), Chapter 18, pp. 391-416. Willey, New York, 1995.

124. Bernholc, N.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Biomonitoring for the Photovoltaics Industry. Draft Report, July 1995.

123. Bernholc, N.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., The Effectiveness of Wipe Sampling as a Monitoring Tool to the Photovoltaics Manufacture. Draft Report, April 1995.

122. Morris, S.C., Lee, J., Moskowitz, P.D., and Goldstein, G., Photovoltaic Energy Impacts on U.S. CO2 Emissions, EPA Symposium on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Mitigation Research, June 22-29 1995, Wash., D.C.

121. Fthenakis, V.M. and Blewitt, D.N., Recent Developments on Modeling Mitigation of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases. Journal of Loss Prevention, 8(2), 71-77, 1995.

120. Fthenakis, V.M., Comparison of Air Pollution Options for Toxic Gases in Photovoltaic and Semiconductor Manufacturing Facilities, Paper 5d, AIChE 1995 Loss Prevention Symposium, Boston, MA, June 31-July 2, 1995.

119. Fthenakis, V.M., Blewitt, D.N., and Hague, W.J., Modeling Absorption and Dilution of Unconfined Releases of Hazardous Gases by Water Curtains or Monitors. Prepared for the International Conference and Workshop on Modeling and Mitigating the Consequences of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Materials, pp. 573-592, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 26-29, 1995.

118. Fthenakis, V.M., Mitigation Options for Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases. Prepared for the International Conference and Workshop on Modeling and Mitigating the Consequences of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Materials, pp. 881-904, New Orleans, LA, Sept. 26-29, 1995.

117. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Health and Environmental Issues in Their Manufacture, Use and Disposal, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 3(5), 295-306, 1995.

116. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Plasma Etching: Safety, Health and Environmental Considerations, Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 3, 129-134, 1995.

115. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Health and Environmental Issues in their Manufacture, Use and Disposal. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 3, 295-306, 1995.

114. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Plasma Etching: Safety, Health and Environmental Considerations. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 3, 129-134, 1995.

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1994

113. Moskowitz, P.D, Buchanan, W., and Shafarman, W., Lessons Learned from a Hydrogen Explosion at a Photovoltaic Research Facility, BNL 61322. Presented at the First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa, Hawaii, Dec. 5-9, 1994.

112. Thumm, W., Finke, A., Neumeier, B., Beck, B., Kettrup, A., Steinberger, H., and Moskowitz, P.D., Environmental and Health Aspects of CIS-Module Production, Use and Disposal, BNL 61323. Presented at the First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa, Hawaii, Dec. 5-9, 1994.

111. Eberspacher, C., Gay, C. F., and Moskowitz, P.D., Strategies for Recycling CdTe Photovoltaic Modules, BNL 61321. Presented at the First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa, Hawaii, Dec. 5-9, 1994.

110. Moskowitz, P.D., Steinberger, H., and Thumm, W., Health and Environmental Hazards of CdTe Photovoltaic Module Production, Use and Decommissioning, BNL 61324. Presented at the First World Conference on Photovoltaic Energy Conversion, Waikoloa, Hawaii, Dec. 5-9, 1994.

109. Fthenakis, V.M., Photovoltaic Systems and Electromagnetic Interference. Draft Report, November 1994.

108. Reaven, S.J., Recycling and Waste Minimization Prospects for Photovoltaic Modules: A Preliminary Assessment. Draft Report, Aug. 1994.

107. Eberspacher, C., and Gay, C., Strategies for Ensuring the Commercial Success of CdTe-Based Photovoltaics. Draft Report, March 1994.

106. Harris, M.W., et al., The General and Reproductive Toxicity of the Photovoltaic Material Cadmium Telluride (CdTe). Presented at the Society of Toxicology 1994 Annual Meeting, Dallas, Texas, March 13-17, 1994. The Toxicologist, 4:267, 1994.

105. Bernholc, N.M., Moskowitz, P.D., Chapin, R., and Harris, M., Cadmium Telluride - Summary Report on Industrial Hygiene, Understanding and Managing Health and Environmental Risks of CIS, CGS, CdTe Photovoltaic Module Production and Use: A Workshop Report (ed. P.D. Moskowitz and K. Zweibel). Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1994.

104. Moskowitz, P.D, Zweibel, K., and DePhillips, M.P., Understanding And Managing Health and Environmental Risks of CIS, CGS, and CdTe Photovoltaic Module Production and Use: A Workshop Report, BNL 61480. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY., April 1994.

103. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Crandall, R.S., and Nelson, B.P., Analysis of Risks Associated with the Use of Hazardous Production Materials in Research Laboratories. Solid State Technology, 37(7):121-125, 1994.

102. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Control of Particulate and Gas in Photovoltaic Module Manufacture. Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications, 2, 317-326, 1994.

101. Fthenakis, V.M and Moskowitz, P.D., Control of Gaseous Emissions in Photovoltaic Module Manufacture. Progress in Photovoltaics, 2:317-326, 1994.

100. DePhillips, M.P. and Moskowitz, P.D., A Review of Incentives, Strategies and Model Technologies for Recyling Photovoltaic Modules. BNL 61763. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY., March 1994

99. DePhillips, M.P., Fthenakis, V.M., and Moskowitz, P.D., Waste Reduction for Manufacturers of Copper Indium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells, BNL 61769. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY., March 1994.

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1993

98. Fthenakis, V.M, Schatz, K.W., Rohatgi, U.S., and Zakkay, V., Computation of Flow Fields Induced by Water Spraying of an Unconfined Gaseous Plume. ASME Journal of Fluids Engineering, 115:742-749, 1993.

97. Fthenakis, V.M, Morris, S.C., and Moskowitz, P.D., Guidelines for Accident Prevention and Emergency Preparedness. Chapter in Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases, (V.M. Fthenakis, ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1993.

96. Fthenakis, V.M., Passive Near-Field Mitigation. Chapter 6 in Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases, (V.M. Fthenakis, ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1993

95. Fthenakis, V.M., Accidents, Prevention and Mitigation Options. Chapter in Prevention and Control of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Gases, (V.M. Fthenakis, ed.), Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1993.

94. Fthenakis, V.M., HGSPRAY: A Complete Model of Liquid Sprays Interacting With Gas Plumes. Journal of Loss Prevention, 6(5):327-331,1993.

93. Moskowitz, P.D., Jacobson, L.A., and Nelson, B., Dealing with the Hazards of Photovoltaic Technology. 23rd IEEE Photovoltaics Specialists Conference Tutorial, Louisville, Kentucky, May 10-14, 1993.

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1992

92. DePhillips, M.P., Moskowitz, P.D., and Fthenakis, V.M., SUNRAYCE 93: Working Safely with Lead-Acid Batteries and Photovoltaic Power Systems, BNL 48416. Brookhaven national Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1992.

91. Jacobson, L., Moskowitz, P.D., Garrett, J.O., and Tyler, R., Accident Investigation of the Electrical Shock Incident at the PG&E; PVUSA Site, Davis, California. Prepared for the Photovoltaic Energy Technology Division, U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC., 1992.

90. Crandall, R.S., Nelson, B.P., Moskowitz, P.D., and Fthenakis, V.M., Safety Analysis Report for the Use of Hazardous Production Materials in Photovoltaic Applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. NREL/MP-451-4778A. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO., 1992.

89. Rowe, M.D. and Moskowitz, P.D., DOE Photovoltaic Program Manager Response to Environmental, Health, and Safety Needs at Contractor Facilities. Draft Report, 1992.

88. Nelson, B.P., Crandall, R.S., Moskowitz, P.D., and Fthenakis, V.M., An Overview of Safety Assessment, Regulation, and Control of Hazardous Material Use at NREL. Presented at the 11th Annual PV AR&D; Conference, Golden, CO, May 13-15, 1992; BNL 47653. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1992.

87. Moskowitz, P.D., Viren, J., and Fthenakis, V.M., An Update on Environmental, Health and Safety Issues of Interest to the Photovoltaic Industry. Presented at the 11th Annual PV AR&D; Conference, Golden, CO, May 13-15, 1992; BNL 47666. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1992.

86. Fthenakis, V.M., Youngblood, R.W., and Moskowitz, P.D., The Role of Fault Tree Analysis in Assessing Hazards from Materials Used in Semiconductor Industries. Semiconductor Safety Association Journal 51-56, March 1992.

85. Moskowitz, P.D., Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Related to the Production and Use of CdTe Photovoltaic Modules. International Journal of Solar Energy, Vol. 12, pp.259-281 (1992). BNL 47372. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1992.

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1991

84. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., A Checklist of Suggested Safe Practices for the Storage, Distribution, Use and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Gases in Photovoltaic Cell Production. Solar Cells, 31:513-525 (1991). BNL 46583. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1991.

83. Fthenakis, V.M., Mathematical Models for Mitigation. Presented at the International Conference and Workshop on Modeling and Mitigating the Consequences of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Materials. Workshop on Mitigation, New Orleans, May 20, 1991.

82. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., Environmental, Health and Safety Issues Associated with the Manufacture and Use of II-VI Photovoltaic Devices. Solar Cells, 30:89-99, 1991.

81. Fthenakis, V.M., Schatz, K.W., and Zakkay, V., Modeling of Water Spraying of Field Releases of Hydrogen Fluoride. International Conference and Workshop on Modeling and Mitigating the Consequences of Accidental Releases of Hazardous Materials, pp. 403-429, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, New York, 1991.

80. Fthenakis, V.M., Schatz, K.W., and Zakkay, V,. Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Flow Fields Caused by Spraying of Water on Large Releases of Hydrogen Fluoride. ASME, FED-Vol. 131, Fluid Dynamics of Sprays, Book No. H00715, pp. 37-44, 1991.

79. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., A Checklist of Safe Practices for the Storage, Distribution, Use and Disposal of Toxic and Hazardous Gases in Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing. BNL 46583. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 31:513-525 (1991).

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1990

78. Meinhold, A.F. and Moskowitz, P.D., Photovoltaic Environmental, Health and Safety Electronic Bulletin Board Service. Presented at the Twenty-First IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Kissimmee, FL, May 21-25, 1990. BNL 44777. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1990.

77. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Hamilton, L.D., Kalb P.D., and Lee, J.C., Risk in New Technologies - Controlling Toxic Gas Releases During Photovoltaic Cell Manufacture. BNL 39574. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Presented at Society for Risk Analysis, 1986 Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, November 9-12, 1986. In L.A. Cox and P.F. Ricci, (Editors), New Risks: Issues and Management, pp. 129-135, Plenum Press, New York, 1990.

76. Morris, S.C., Moskowitz, P.D., and Hamilton, L.D., Comparison of EPA, ILO, and World Bank Guidelines for Risk Identification, Assessment, or Management of Chemical Emergencies. BNL 39576. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Presented at Society for Risk Analysis, 1986 Annual Meeting, Boston, MA, November 9-12, 1986. In L.A. Cox and P.F. Ricci, (Editors), New Risks: Issues and Management, pp. 23-32, Plenum Press, New York, 1990.

75. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Zweibel, K., Health and Safety Issues Related to the Production, Use and Disposal of Cadmium-Based Photovoltaic Modules. Presented at the Twenty-first IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Kissimmee, FL, May 21-25, 1990. BNL 44773. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1990.

74. Moskowitz, P.D., Zweibel, K., and Fthenakis, V.M., Health, Safety and Environmental Issues Relating to Cadmium Usage in Photovoltaic Energy Systems. BNL 44946. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. SERI/TR-211-3621, DE9000310, January 1990.

73. Fthenakis, V.M., and Zakkay, V., A Theoretical Study of Absorption of Toxic Gases by Spraying. Journal of Loss Prevention, 3(2):197-206, 1990.

72. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., Toxic Materials Released from Photovoltaic Modules During Fires: Health Risks. BNL 44662. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1990. Solar Cells, 29:63-71, 1990.

71. Moskowitz, P.D., Health and Safety Issues in Photovoltaic Cell Manufacture. In T.J. Coutts and J.D. Meakin (Editors), Current Topics in Photovoltaics, Vol. 4, pp. 134-l8l, Academic Press, London (1990).

70. Lee, J.C. and Moskowitz, P.D., Hazard Identification and Characterization of Organometals in Growing III-V Semiconductors for the Production of Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 43692. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 28: 209-222, 1990.

69. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., An Assessment of Silane Explosion Hazards. Solid State Tech. 33(1):81-85, 1990.

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1989

68. Lee, J.C. and Moskowitz, P.D., Indium Phosphide Photovoltaic Cell Manufacture: Hazard Identification, Characterization, and Management. Draft, 1989.

67. Medeiros, W.H., Biological Monitoring in the Photovoltaics Industry. Draft, 1989.

66. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., Identifying, Characterizing, and Managing Risks from Accidentally Released Toxic Gases. In Hazard Assessment of Chemicals, J. Saxena (Editor), Vol. 7, pp. 83-110, Hemisphere Publishing Co., Washington, DC, 1989.

65. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Lee, J.C., Protecting Worker Health and Safety in Photovoltaic Research and Development Laboratories. Presented at SERI PV AR&D; 9th Review Meeting, May 24-26, 1989, Lakewood, CO. Solar Cells, 27:149-158, (1989).

64. Kalb, P.D. and Moskowitz, P.D., Use of GeH4 and GeF4 in a-Si Photovoltaic Cell Hazard Assessment and Management Options. BNL 44760. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 26:269-291, 1989.

63. Fthenakis, V.M., The Feasibility of Controlling Unconfined Releases of Toxic Gases by Liquid Spraying. Chemical Engineering Communications, 83:173-189, 1989.

62. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Youngblood, R.W., and Mendez, S.R., Evaluating Risks Associated with the use of Silane. Hazard Assessment and Control Technology in Semiconductor Manufacturing Meeting, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Lewis Publishers, 97-114, 1989.

61. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Morris, S.C., and Hamilton, L.D., Approaches for Identifying, Characterizing and Managing Risks from Accidentally Released Toxic Gases. Hazard Assessment and Control Technology in Semiconductor Manufacturing Meeting. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, Lewis Publishers, 271-284, 1989.

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1988

60. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Lee, J.C., and Hamilton, L.D., Process Characteristics, Environmental Hazards, and Control Management Options for Large-Scale Crystalline Silicon and Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Facilities. Prepared for Energia Nuclear e dell Energia Alternative, Rome, Italy, 1988.

59. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Sproull, R.D., Control of Accidental Releases of Hydrogen Selenide and Hydrogen Sulfide in the Manufacture of Photovoltaic Cells: A Feasibility Study. Journal of Loss Prevention, 1: 206-212, 1988.

58. Hamilton, L.D., Medeiros, W.H., Moskowitz, P.D., and Rybicka, K., Toxicology of Tetramethyltin and Other Organometals Used in Photovoltaic Cell Manufacture. Photovoltaic Safety, AIP Conference Proceedings 166, 54-66, American Institute of Physics, New York, 1988.

57. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Kalb, P.D, Preventing and Controlling Accidental Gas Releases. Photovoltaic Safety, AIP Conference Proceedings 166, 161-174, American Institute of Physics, NY, 1988.

56. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Sproull, R.D, Control of Accidental Releases of Hydrogen Selenide in Vented Storage Cabinets. Photovoltaic Safety, AIP Conference Proceedings l66, 79-88, American Institute of Physics, NY, 1988.

55. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Hamilton, L.D., Health and Safety Aspects of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Technologies. Plant/Operations Progress, 7(4):236-241, 1988.

54. Kalb, P.D. and Moskowitz, P.D., Hazard Characterization and Management of Tetramethyl Tin in the Production of Photovoltaic Cell Transparent Conductive Oxide Layers. Presented at the 20th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, 1988.

53. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., Photovoltaic Energy Systems. BNL 37217. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1985. Energy Technologies and the Environment-Environmental Information Handbook. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC, 1988.

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1987

52. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Manufacture of Thin Film Photovoltaic Cells: Identification of Potential Health and Safety Hazards. Draft, 1987.

51. Morris, S.C., Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Hamilton, L.D., Chemical Emergencies: Evaluation of Guidelines for Risk Identification, Assessment, and Management. BNL 39592. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, Environment International, 13:305-310, 1987.

50. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Youngblood, R.W., and Morris. S.C., Fault Tree and Consequence Analysis of Potential Hazards in the Photovoltaics Industry. Presented at the American Society of Civil Engineers, Energy-Division Specialty Conference, April 29, 1987.

49. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Morris, S.C., Source Term and Consequence Modeling. Software Review, Risk Analysis, 7(3):405-407, 1987.

48. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Characterization and Control of Phosphine Hazards in Photovoltaic Cell Manufacture. Solar Cells, 22:303-317, 1987.

47. Gay, C.F. and Moskowitz, P.D., Safety and Environmental Aspects of Photovoltaic Processing for Engineers and Scientists. 19th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference Tutorial, 1987.

46. Khanna, A.K., Gupta, R., Joseph, A., Singh, N., and Vojtek, M.E., Evaluation of Environmental Control Equipment for Thin-Film Silicon Photovoltaic Cell Processing - Phase I. BNL 39694. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1987.

45. Fthenakis, V.M., Electrical and Electromagnetic Hazards in the Manufacture of Thin-Film Solar Cells. BNL 39201. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 19 (1):45-58, 1986-1987.

44. Lee, J.C. and Moskowitz, P.D., Hazard Characterization and Management of Arsine and Gallium Arsenide in Large-Scale Production of Gallium Arsenide Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 36643. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1985. Solar Cells, 18:41-54, 1987.

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1986

43. Stern, E., The Portable Computing System for Use in Gas Emergencies. Risk Analysis 6(3):381-385, 1986.

42. Moskowitz, P.D., Kalb, P.D., Lee, J.C., and Fthenakis, V.M., An Environmental Source Book on the Photovoltaics Industry. BNL 52052. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986.

41. Fowler, P.K., Dobryn, D.G., and Lee, C.M., Control of Toxic Gas Release During the Production of Copper-Indium-Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 38777. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 1986.

40. Fthenakis, V.M., Modeling the Atmospheric Dispersion of Accidentally Released Heavy Gases from Photovoltaic Cell Manufacturing Facilities. BNL 52058. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986.

39. Lee, J.C. and Moskowitz, P.D., Hazard Management and Control Costs in Large-Scale Production of Amorphous Silicon Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 39610. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986.

38. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Manufacture of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Characterization and Management of Phosphine Hazards. BNL 5l989. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986.

37. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Failure Rates Data for Chemical Probabilistic Reliability Analysis (PRA): Data Sources and Use. Draft, 1986.

36. Fthenakis, V.M., Weiner, R.F., and Moskowitz, P.D., Explosive Behavior of Silane. Draft, 1986.

35. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Sproull, R.D., Specifying Environmental Control Systems for Toxic Gases: A Case Study for Hydrogen Selenide and Hydrogen Sulfide. BNL 39203. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1986.

34. Moskowitz, P.D. and Fthenakis, V.M., Don't Forget Electrical Shock Hazards. BNL 39200. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Serious Accident Bulletin 16, 1986.

33. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Hamilton, L.D., and Lee, J.C., Public Health Issues in Photovoltaic Energy Systems: An Overview of Concerns. Presented at the Photovoltaic Safety Conference, Denver, CO, January 16-17, 1986. BNL 39205. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 19(3-4):287-99, 1986-1987.

32. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., Hamilton, L.D., and Lee, J.C., Personal Safety in Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cell Industries. Presented at the Photovoltaic Safety Conference, Denver, CO, January 16-17, 1986, BNL 39204. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 19(3-4):287-299, 1986-1987.

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1985

31. Ungers, L.J., Jones, J.H., McIntyre, A.J., and McHenry, C.R., Release of Arsenic from Semiconductor Wafers. Amer. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 46(8):416-420, 1985.

30. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells: Health and Environmental Effects. Presented at the 1985 Annual Symposium in Energy and Economic Development: Global Views and Issues in Greece, MIT, Cambridge, MA, Oct. 11-13, 1985.

29. Lee, J.C. and Moskowitz, P.D., Potential Health and Safety Hazards Associated with the Production of Gallium Arsenide Alloy Based Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 39208. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1985.

28. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., Hamilton, L.D., Lee, J.C., and Bulawka, A., Gas Health and Safety Hazards and Controls Associated with the Production of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells. Presented at the 18th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialist Conference, Las Vegas, NV, October 21-25, 1985.

27. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Hamilton, L.D., Potential Health and Safety Hazards Associated with the Manufacture of Amorphous Silicon and Copper Indium Diselenide Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 37216. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, June 1985. Presented at the INTERSOL 85 Meeting, Montreal, Canada, June 24-28, 1985.

26. Wilenitz, I., Fthenakis, V.M., and Moskowitz, P.D., Costs of Controlling Emissions from the Manufacture of Silicon Dendritic Web Photovoltaic Cells. Solar Cells, 15:247-266, 1985.

25. Fthenakis, V.M. and Moskowitz, P.D., Characterization of Gas Hazards in a-Si Photovoltaic Cells Manufacture. BNL 5l854. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1985.

24. Moskowitz, P.D., Fthenakis, V.M., and Lee, J.C., Potential Health and Safety Hazards Associated with the Production of Cadmium Telluride, Copper Indium Diselenide, and Zinc Phosphide Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 5l832. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1985.

23. Moskowitz, P.D. and Rowe, M.D., A Comparison of Input-Output and Process Analyses. Presented at the Workshop on Assessing Health Impacts of Energy Technologies at the Regional or National Level, BNL 30751. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981. In Ricci, P.F., and Rowe, M.D. (Editors), Health and Environmental Risk Assessment, Pergamon Press, NY, 1985.

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1984

22. Fthenakis, V.M., Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures - Book Review. Environment International, 10(3):270, 1984.

21. Fthenakis, V.M., Lee, J.C., and Moskowitz, P.D., Amorphous Silicon and Gallium Arsenide Thin-Film Technologies for Photovoltaic Cell Production: An Identification of Potential Health and Safety Hazards. BNL 5l768. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1984.

20. Fthenakis, V.M., Moskowitz, P.D., and Lee, J.C., Manufacture of Amorphous Silicon and Gallium Arsenide Thin-Film Solar Cells: An Identification of Potential Health and Safety Hazards. Solar Cells, 13:43-58, 1984.

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1983

19. Moskowitz, P.D., Coveney, E.A., Crowther, M.A., Hamilton, L.D., Morris, S.C., Novak, K.M., Perry, P.E., Rabinowitz, S., Rowe, M.D., Sevian, W.A., Smith, J.E., and Wilenitz, I., Health Risks of Photovoltaic Energy Systems. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences, Detroit, MI, BNL 51676. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1983.

18. Moskowitz, P.D., Coveney, E.A., Rabinowitz, S., and Barancik, J.I., Rooftop Photovoltaic Arrays: Electric Shock and Fire Health Hazards. Solar Cells, 9:1-10, 1983.

17. Moskowitz, P.D., Coveney, E.A., Crowther, M.A., Hamilton, L.D., Morris, S.C., Novak, K.M., Perry, P.E., Rabinowitz, S., Rowe, M.D., Sevian, W.A., Smith, J.E., and Wilenitz, I., Health and Environmental Effects Document of Photovoltaic Energy Systems - l983. BNL 5l676. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1983.

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1982

16. Moskowitz, P.D., A Reference System for Estimating Health Risks of Selected Energy/Material Cycles. Presented at the 100th Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association, Montreal, Canada, Nov., 1982.

15. Moskowitz, P.D., Barancik, J.I., Coveney, E.A., Hamilton, L.D., Perry, P.E., Rabinowitz, S., Rowe, M.D., and Wilenitz, I., Health and Environmental Effects Document for Photovoltaic Energy Systems - l982. BNL 5l599. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1982.

14. Ungers, L.J., Moskowitz, P.D., Owens, T.W., Harmon, A.D., and Briggs, T.M., Methodology for An Occupational Risk Assessment: An Evaluation of Four Processes for the Fabrication of Photovoltaic Cells. BNL 30l29. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 43:73-79; 1982.

13. Moskowitz, P.D., Hamilton, L.D., Morris, S.C., Novak, K.M., Briggs, T., Owens, T., and Ungers, L., Photovoltaic Energy Technologies: Examining Public and Occupational Health Risk,. BNL 29565. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. Solar Cells, 5:1-18, 1982.

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1981

12. Moskowitz, P.D., Perry, P., and Wilenitz, I., Photovoltaic Energy Systems: Environmental Concerns and Control Technology Needs, BNL 31478. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY. EPA 6001/7-82-066, 1981.

11.Crowther, M.A., Thode, Jr., H.C., Moskowitz, P.D., and Morris, S.C., Occupational Safety and Health Risks of Producing Selected Materials for Solar Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Report, BNL 5l407. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

10. Crowther, M.A. and Moskowitz, P.D., A Reference Material System for Estimating Health and Environmental Risks of Selected Material Cycles and Energy Systems, BNL 51563. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

9. Morris, S.C., Moskowitz, P.D., Rowe, M.D., and Hamilton, L.D., Health Risk Assessment of Energy Technologies. Presented at the American Public Health Association l09th Annual Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, BNL 30746. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

8. Moskowitz, P.D., Briggs, T., Ungers, L., and Hamilton, L.D., A Prospective Method for Estimating Occupational Risks in New Energy Technologies. Presented at the American Public Health Association 109th Annual Meeting, BNL 30748. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

7. Moskowitz, P.D., Hamilton, L.D., Morris, S.C., Novak, K.M., Robinson, C.V., and Rowe, M.D., Health Risks of Photovoltaic Energy Technologies. Presented at the International Symposium on Health Impacts of Different Sources of Energy, jointly sponsored by WHO/UNEP/IAEA, Nashville, TN, BNL 30745. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

6. Green, P.G., Toxicity of Arsenic and its Compounds. BNL 5l5l0. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

5. Novak, K.M., Toxicity of Silicon Compounds. BNL 51509. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1981.

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1980

4. Moskowitz, P.D., Health Risks of Photovoltaic Energy Technologies. Proceedings of the Seventh National Conference on Energy and the Environment, November 30 - December 3, 1980, Phoenix, AZ, pp. 520-532. BNL 3l472, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, l980.

3. Novak, K.M., Toxicity of Cadmium and its Compounds: A Review of the Literature Aimed at Identifying Dose-Response Relationships, BNL 5l5ll. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1980.

2. Robinson, C.V. and Novak, K.M., Programs and Subroutines for Calculating Cadmium Body Burdens Based on a One-Compartment Model, BNL 51306. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1980.

1. Moskowitz, P.D., Hamilton, L.D., Morris, S.C., Novak, K.M., and Rowe, M.D., Photovoltaic Energy Technologies: Health and Environmental Effects Document. BNL 5l284. Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY, 1980.

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Last Modified: December 17, 2012
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