General Information

Top of Page

Ion Species

Many other ions can be produced if required. We have to know, in advance, what ions and LETs you plan to use. In addition to the maximum energies, ranges and corresponding LETs listed below, lower energies are available for each ion. Charts for range and LET values as a function of energy can be seen by clickingon the links in the LET columns.

Flux can be in the range of 1 particle/cm2/sec
to greater than 1 · 106 particles/cm2/sec.
In Silicon
High LET Summary
Low LET Summary
In GaAs
High LET Summary
Low LET Summary
How To Use The Charts Below
  Mass Max
Energy
Surface
LET
Range Surface
LET
Range
Z Symbol AMU MeV MeV
AMU
MeV
mg/cm2
Microns MeV
mg/cm2
Microns
1 1H1 1.0079 28.75 28.52 0.0153 4550 0.0118 2610
3 3Li7 7.0160 57.2 8.15 0.369 390 0.273 240
5 5B11 11.0093 85.5 7.77 1.08 206.13 0.754 132.55
6 6C12 12.0000 99.6 8.30 1.46 180.43 1.03 115.82
8 8O16 15.9994 128 8.00 2.61 137.78 1.83 88.9
9 9F19 18.9954 142 7.48 3.51 118.88 2.45 77.12
12 12Mg24 23.9927 161 6.71 6.01 84.16 4.17 55.13
14 14Si28 28.0855 187 6.66 7.81 77.16 5.42 50.66
17 17Cl35 34.9688 212 6.06 11.5 64.41 7.93 42.71
20 20Ca40 39.9753 221 5.53 15.8 51.89 10.9 34.7
22 22Ti48 47.9479 232 4.84 19.6 47.8 13.4 32.36
24 24Cr52 51.9405 245 4.72 22.3 45.86 15.3 31.06
26 26Fe56 55.9349 259 4.63 25.1 44.24 17.2 30.09
28 28Ni58 57.9353 270 4.66 27.9 44.56 19.1 30.47
29 29Cu63 62.9296 277 4.40 30.1 42.06 20.6 28.79
32 32Ge72 71.9221 273 3.80 35.9 37.94 24.4 26.25
35 35Br81 80.9163 287 3.55 41.3 37.50 28.0 26.11
41 41Nb93 92.9060 300 3.23 47.5 36.32 32.1 25.4
47 47Ag107 106.9051 313 2.93 59.2 32.48 39.9 22.89
53 53I127 126.9045 322 2.54 66.9 32.54 45.0 23.17
79 79Au197 196.9665 337 1.71 84.6 29.21 56.2 21.18