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Brookhaven Patents

Cloning and Expression of the Gene for Bacteriophage T7 RNA

Patent Number: 5,693,489

This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

Patent Number: 5,705,391

Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

Monolithic amplifier with stable, high resistance feedback element and method for fabricating the same

Patent Number: 5,793,254

A monolithic amplifier includes a stable, high resistance feedback circuit and a dynamic bias circuit. The dynamic bias circuit is formed with active elements matched to those in the amplifier and feedback circuit to compensate for variations in the operating and threshold voltages thereby maintaining a stable resistance in the feedback circuit.

Modified Acyl-ACP desaturase

Patent Number: 5,888,790

Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

Method for surface treatment of a cadmium zinc telluride crystal

Patent Number: 5,933,706

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that reduces surface roughness (increases surface planarity) and provides an oxide coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve resolution. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of lactic acid and bromine in ethylene glycol, following the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, oxidizing the CZT crystal surface.

Method for surface passivation and protection of cadmium zinc telluride crystals

Patent Number: 6,043,106

A method for reducing the leakage current in CZT crystals, particularly Cd.sub.1-x Zn.sub.x Te crystals (where x is greater than equal to zero and less than or equal to 0.5), and preferably Cd.sub.0.9 Zn.sub.0.1 Te crystals, thereby enhancing the ability of these crystal to spectrally resolve radiological emissions from a wide variety of radionuclides. Two processes are disclosed. The first method provides for depositing, via reactive sputtering, a silicon nitride hard-coat overlayer which provides significant reduction in surface leakage currents. The second method enhances the passivation by oxidizing the CZT surface with an oxygen plasma prior to silicon nitride deposition without breaking the vacuum state.

Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

Patent Number: 6,524,966

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water.

Modified acyl-ACP desaturase

Patent Number: 6,100,091

Disclosed is a method for modifying the chain length and double bond positional specificities of a soluble plant fatty acid desaturase. More specifically, the method involves modifying amino acid contact residues in the substrate binding channel of the soluble fatty acid desaturase which contact the fatty acid. Specifically disclosed is the modification of an acyl-ACP desaturase. Amino acid contact residues which lie within the substrate binding channel are identified, and subsequently replaced with different residues to effect the modification of activity.

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation in fuel cells

Patent Number: 6,183,894

Binary and ternary electrocatalysts are provided for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. The binary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate selected from the group consisting of NiWO.sub.4 or CoWO.sub.4 or a combination thereof, and 2) Group VIII noble metal catalyst supported on the substrate. The ternary electrocatalyst includes 1) a substrate as described above, and 2) a catalyst comprising Group VIII noble metal, and ruthenium oxide or molybdenum oxide or a combination thereof, said catalyst being supported on said substrate.

Methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents

Patent Number: 6,309,863

The present invention provides methods for generating phosphorylation site-specific immunological reagents. More specifically, a phosphopeptide mimetic is incorporated into a polypeptide in place of a phosphorylated amino acid. The polypeptide is used as antigen by standard methods to generate either monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies which cross-react with the naturally phosphorylated polypeptide. The phosphopeptide mimetic preferably contains a non-hydrolyzable linkage from the appropriate carbon atom of the amino acid residue to a phosphate group. A preferred linkage is a CF.sub.2 group. Such a linkage is used to generate the phosphoserine mimetic F.sub.2 Pab, which is incorporated into a polypeptide sequence derived from p53 to produce antibodies which recognize a specific phosphorylation state of p53. A CF.sub.2 group linkage is also used to produce the phosphothreonine mimetic F.sub.2 Pmb, and to produce the phosphotyrosine mimetic, F.sub.2 Pmp.

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector

Patent Number: 6,350,989

Wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector useful for gamma-ray and x-ray spectrometers and imaging systems. The detector is fabricated using wafer fusion to insert an electrically conductive grid, typically comprising a metal, between two solid semiconductor pieces, one having a cathode (negative electrode) and the other having an anode (positive electrode). The wafer fused semiconductor radiation detector functions like the commonly used Frisch grid radiation detector, in which an electrically conductive grid is inserted in high vacuum between the cathode and the anode. The wafer-fused semiconductor radiation detector can be fabricated using the same or two different semiconductor materials of different sizes and of the same or different thicknesses; and it may utilize a wide range of metals, or other electrically conducting materials, to form the grid, to optimize the detector performance, without being constrained by structural dissimilarity of the individual parts. The wafer-fused detector is basically formed, for example, by etching spaced grooves across one end of one of two pieces of semiconductor materials, partially filling the grooves with a selected electrical conductor which forms a grid electrode, and then fusing the grooved end of the one semiconductor piece to an end of the other semiconductor piece with a cathode and an anode being formed on opposite ends of the semiconductor pieces.

Semiconductor Radiation Spectrometer

Patent Number: 6,373,064

An improved semiconductor radiation detector which involves engineering the internal electrical field through an external infrared light source. A planar semiconductor radiation detector is applied with a bias voltage, and an optical light beam with a selected photon energy is used to illuminate the detector and engineer the internal electric field. Different light beam intensities or photon energies produce different distributions of the internal electric field. The width of the electric field can be fine-tuned by changing the optical beam intensity and wavelength, so that the radiation detector performance can be optimized. The detector is portable, small in size, and operates at room temperature.

Treatment of mercury containing waste

Patent Number: 6,399,849

A process is provided for the treatment of mercury containing waste in a single reaction vessel which includes a) stabilizing the waste with sulfur polymer cement under an inert atmosphere to form a resulting mixture and b) encapsulating the resulting mixture by heating the mixture to form a molten product and casting the molten product as a monolithic final waste form. Additional sulfur polymer cement can be added in the encapsulation step if needed, and a stabilizing additive can be added in the process to improve the leaching properties of the waste form.

Photon generator

Patent Number: 6,459,766

A photon generator includes an electron gun for emitting an electron beam, a laser for emitting a laser beam, and an interaction ring wherein the laser beam repetitively collides with the electron beam for emitting a high energy photon beam therefrom in the exemplary form of x-rays. The interaction ring is a closed loop, sized and configured for circulating the electron beam with a period substantially equal to the period of the laser beam pulses for effecting repetitive collisions.

Offset-Free Rail-to-Rail Derandomizing Peak Detect and Hold Circuit

Patent Number: 6,512,399

A peak detect-and-hold circuit eliminates errors introduced by conventional amplifiers, such as common-mode rejection and input voltage offset. The circuit includes an amplifier, three switches, a transistor, and a capacitor. During a detect-and-hold phase, a hold voltage at a non-inverting in put terminal of the amplifier tracks an input voltage signal and when a peak is reached, the transistor is switched off, thereby storing a peak voltage in the capacitor. During a readout phase, the circuit functions as a unity gain buffer, in which the voltage stored in the capacitor is provided as an output voltage. The circuit is able to sense signals rail-to-rail and can readily be modified to sense positive, negative, or peak-to-peak voltages. Derandomization may be achieved by using a plurality of peak detect-and-hold circuits electrically connected in parallel.

Ultrathin optical panel and a method of making an ultrathin optical panel

Patent Number: 6,519,400

An ultrathin optical panel, and a method of producing an ultrathin optical panel, are disclosed, including stacking a plurality of glass sheets, which sheets may be coated with a transparent cladding substance or may be uncoated, fastening together the plurality of stacked coated glass sheets using an epoxy or ultraviolet adhesive, applying uniform pressure to the stack, curing the stack, sawing the stack to form an inlet face on a side of the stack and an outlet face on an opposed side of the stack, bonding a coupler to the inlet face of the stack, and fastening the stack, having the coupler bonded thereto, within a rectangular housing having an open front which is aligned with the outlet face, the rectangular housing having therein a light generator which is optically aligned with the coupler. The light generator is preferably placed parallel to and proximate with the inlet face, thereby allowing for a reduction in the depth of the housing.

Method of surface preparation of niobium

Patent Number: 6,524,170

The present invention is for a method of preparing a surface of niobium. The preparation method includes polishing, cleaning, baking and irradiating the niobium surface whereby the resulting niobium surface has a high quantum efficiency.

Plasma valve

Patent Number: 6,528,948

A plasma valve includes a confinement channel and primary anode and cathode disposed therein. An ignition cathode is disposed adjacent the primary cathode. Power supplies are joined to the cathodes and anode for rapidly igniting and maintaining a plasma in the channel for preventing leakage of atmospheric pressure through the channel.

Metalloporphyrins and their uses as imageable tumor-targeting agents for radiation therapy

Patent Number: 6,566,517

The present invention covers radiosensitizers containing as an active ingredient halogenated derivatives of boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages which selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies including, but not limited to, boron neutron-capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. The present invention also covers methods for using these radiosensitizers in tumor imaging and cancer treatment.

Ionizing radiation detector

Patent Number: 6,649,915

A CdZnTe (CZT) crystal provided with a native CdO dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals is disclosed. A two step process is provided for forming the dielectric coating which includes etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4 F and 10 w/o H.sub.2 O.sub.2 in water after attaching electrical contacts to the crystal surface.

Carbon monoxide tolerant electrocatalyst with low platinum loading and a process for its preparation

Patent Number: 6,670,301

An electrocatalyst is provided for use in a fuel cell that has low platinum loading and a high tolerance to carbon monoxide poisoning. The fuel cell anode includes an electrocatalyst that has a conductive support material, ruthenium nanoparticles reduced in H.sub.2 and a Group VIII noble metal in an amount of between about 0.1 and 25 wt % of the ruthenium nanoparticles, preferably between about 0.5 and 15 wt %. The preferred Group VIII noble metal is platinum. In one embodiment, the anode can also have a perfluorinated polymer membrane on its surface.

Mutant fatty acid desaturase

Patent Number: 6,686,186

The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

Catalysts for hydrogenation and hydrosilylation, methods of making and using the same

Patent Number: 6,737,531

A compound is provided including an organometallic complex represented by the formula I: wherein M is an atom of molybdenum or tangsten, Cp is substituted or unsubstituted cyclopentadienyl radical represented by the formula [C.sub.5 Q.sup.1 Q.sup.2 Q.sup.3 Q.sup.4 Q.sup.5 ], wherein Q.sup.1 to Q.sup.5 are independently selected from the group consisting of H radical, C.sub.1-20 hydrocarbyl radical, substituted hydrocarbyl radical, halogen radical, halogen-substituted hydrocarbyl radical, "OR, "C(O)R', "CO.sub.2 R', "SiR'.sub.3 and "NR'R", wherein R' and R" are independently selected from the group consisting of H radical, C.sub.1-20 hydrocarbyl radical, halogen radical, and halogen-substituted hydrocarbyl radical, wherein said Q.sup.1 to Q.sup.5 radicals are optionally linked to each other to form a stable bridging group, NHC is any N-heterocyclic carbene ligand, L is either any neutral electron donor ligand, wherein k is a number from 0 to 1 or L is an anionic ligand wherein k is 2, and A.sup.- is an anion. Processes using the organometallic complex as catalyst for hydrogenation of aldehydes and ketones are provided. Processes using the organometallic complex as catalyst for the hydrosilylation of aldehydes, ketones and esters are also provided.

Metalloporporphyrins and their uses as radiosensitizers for radiation therapy

Patent Number: 6,759,403

The present invention covers radiosensitizers containing as active ingredient halogenated derivatives of boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages. The compounds selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies including, but not limited to, boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. The present invention also covers methods for using these radiosensitizers in tumor imaging and cancer treatment.

Method for assaying clustered DNA damages

Patent Number: 6,789,022

Disclosed is a method for detecting and quantifying clustered damages in DNA. In this method, a first aliquot of the DNA to be tested for clustered damages with one or more lesion-specific cleaving reagents under conditions appropriate for cleavage of the DNA to produce single-strand nicks in the DNA at sites of damage lesions. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is then quantitatively determined for the treated DNA. The number average molecular length (Ln) of double stranded DNA is also quantitatively determined for a second, untreated aliquot of the DNA. The frequency of clustered damages (.PHI..sub.c) in the DNA is then calculated.

Synthesis of YBa2Cu3O7Using Sub-atmospheric Processing

Patent Number: 6,794,339

The present invention is a method of forming thick films of crystalline YBa2Cu3O7 that includes forming a precursor film comprising barium fluoride (BaF2), yttrium (Y), and copper (Cu). The precursor film is heat-treated at a temperature above 500 degrees C in the presence of oxygen, nitrogen, and water vapor at sub-atmospheric pressure to form a crystalline structure. The crystalline structure is then annealed at about 500 degrees C in the presence of oxygen to form the crystalline YBa2Cu3O7 film. The YBa2Cu3O7 film formed by this method has a resistivity of from about 100 to about 600 micro-Ohm-cm at room temperature and a critical current density measured at 77 K in a magnetic field of 1 Tesla of about 1.0 X 10^5 Ampere per square centimeter (0.1 MA/cm^2) or greater.

DNA-PK Assay

Patent Number: 6,803,203

The present invention provides a method for detecting DNA-activated protein kinase (DNA-PK) activity in a biological sample. The method includes contacting a biological sample with a detectably-labeled phosphate donor and a synthetic peptide substrate defined by the following features to provide specific recognition and phosphorylation by DNA-PK: (1) a phosphate-accepting amino acid pair which may include serine-glutamine (Ser-Gln) (SQ), threonine-glutamine (Thr-Gln) (TQ), glutamine-serine (Gln-Ser) (QS), or glutamine-threonine (Gln-Thr) (QT); (2) enhancer amino acids which may include glutamic acid or glutamine immediately adjacent at the amino- or carboxyl- side of the amino acid pair and forming an amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (3) a first spacer sequence at the amino terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit; (4) a second spacer sequence at the carboxyl terminus of the amino acid pair-enhancer unit, which spacer sequences may include any combination of amino acids that does not provide a phosphorylation site consensus sequence motif; and, (5) a tag moiety, which may be an amino acid sequence or another chemical entity that permits separating the synthetic peptide from the phosphate donor. A compostion and a kit for the detection of DNA-PK activity are also provided. Methods for detecting DNA, protein phosphatases and substances that alter the activity of DNA-PK are also provided. The present invention also provides a method of monitoring protein kinase and DNA-PK activity in living cells. -A composition and a kit for monitoring protein kinase activity in vitro and a composition and a kit for monitoring DNA-PK activities in living cells are also provided. A method for identifying agents that alter protein kinase activity in vitro and a method for identifying agents that alter DNA-PK activity in living cells are also provided.

Method and device for electroextraction of heavy metals from technological solutions and wastewater

Patent Number: 6,887,368

The basic principles of the method for heavy metals electroextraction from technological solutions and wastewater includes pretreating to remove Chromium-6 and high concentrations of heavy metals and periodically treating in a six-electrode bipolar cylindrical electroreactor made of non-conducting material to achieve lower accepted levels of impurities. Six cylindrical steel electrodes form two triode stacks and are fed with three-phase alternating current of commercial frequency (50-60 Hz), which can be pulsed. Each phase of the three-phase current is connected to three electrodes of one triode stack or in parallel to two triode stacks. The parallel connection of three-phase current to two triode stacks is performed so that the same phase of the three phase current is connected in parallel with each two opposite electrodes of six electrodes located along the periphery, or with two adjacent electrodes. A bipolar stationary aluminum electrode is situated in the inter-electrode space. In one of the embodiments, the bipolar electrode is made of a perforated heat-resistant plastic container filled with secondary aluminum and duralumin scrap. In another embodiment, the bipolar electrode of aluminum or duralumin scrap may be made without a perforated container and is placed in the inter-electrode space as a bulk scrap. In this case, to prevent shorts, each of six steel electrodes is placed in isolated perforated plastic shell with holes of 5 mm in diameter. Non-ferrous metals are extracted in a form of ferrite-chromites, and aluminates as well as hydroxyl salts deposited in the inter-electrode space without electrolysis deposits on electrodes. Deposits are separated from solution by known methods of filtration.

Use of Novel Metalloporphyrins as imageable

Patent Number: 6,951,640

The present invention covers radiosensitizers containing as active ingredient halogenated derivatives of boronated porphyrins containing multiple carborane cages. The compounds selectively accumulate in neoplastic tissue within the irradiation volume and thus can be used in cancer therapies including, but not limited to, boron neutron capture therapy and photodynamic therapy. The present invention also covers methods for using these halogenated derivatives of boronated porphyrins in tumor imaging and cancer treatment.

Isoform of castor oleate hydroxylase

Patent Number: 6,974,893

The present invention relates to oleate hydroxylase genes, proteins, and methods of their use. The present invention also relates to methods of using the oleate hydroxylase genes and proteins, including in their expression in transgenic organisms and in the production of hydroxylated fatty acids.

Surface treatment and protection method for cadmium zinc telluride crystals

Patent Number: 7,001,849

A method for treatment of the surface of a CdZnTe (CZT) crystal that provides a native dielectric coating to reduce surface leakage currents and thereby, improve the resolution of instruments incorporating detectors using CZT crystals. A two step process is disclosed, etching the surface of a CZT crystal with a solution of the conventional bromine/methanol etch treatment, and after attachment of electrical contacts, passivating the CZT crystal surface with a solution of 10 w/o NH.sub.4F and 10 w/o H.sub.2O.sub.2 in water.

Method and apparatus for clockless analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection

Patent Number: 7,187,316

An apparatus and method for analog-to-digital conversion and peak detection includes at least one stage, which includes a first switch, second switch, current source or capacitor, and discriminator. The discriminator changes state in response to a current or charge associated with the input signal exceeding a threshold, thereby indicating whether the current or charge associated with the input signal is greater than the threshold. The input signal includes a peak or a charge, and the converter includes a peak or charge detect mode in which a state of the switch is retained in response to a decrease in the current or charge associated with the input signal. The state of the switch represents at least a portion of a value of the peak or of the charge.

Spore collection and elimination apparatus and method

Patent Number: 7,198,750

The present invention is for a spore collection apparatus and its method of use. The portable spore collection apparatus includes a suction source, a nebulizer, an ionization chamber and a filter canister. The suction source collects the spores from a surface. The spores are activated by heating whereby spore dormancy is broken. Moisture is then applied to the spores to begin germination. The spores are then exposed to alpha particles causing extinction.

Device and method for the measurement of depth of interaction using co-planar electrodes

Patent Number: 7,271,395

A device and method for measuring a depth of interaction of an ionizing event and improving resolution of a co-planar grid sensor (CPG) are provided. A time-of-occurrence is measured using a comparator to time the leading edge of the event pulse from the non-collecting or collecting grid. A difference signal between the grid signals obtained with a differential amplifier includes a pulse with a leading edge occurring at the time-of-detection, measured with another comparator. A timing difference between comparator outputs corresponds to the depth of interaction, calculated using a processor, which in turn weights the difference grid signal to improve spectral resolution of a CPG sensor. The device, which includes channels for grid inputs, may be integrated into an Application Specific Integrated Circuit. The combination of the device and sensor is included. An improved high-resolution CPG is provided, e.g., a gamma-ray Cadmium Zinc Telluride CPG sensor operating at room temperature.

Mutant fatty acid desaturase and methods for directed mutagenesis

Patent Number: 7,323,335

The present invention relates to methods for producing fatty acid desaturase mutants having a substantially increased activity towards substrates with fewer than 18 carbon atom chains relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon chain length specificity, the sequences encoding the desaturases and to the desaturases that are produced by the methods. The present invention further relates to a method for altering a function of a protein, including a fatty acid desaturase, through directed mutagenesis involving identifying candidate amino acid residues, producing a library of mutants of the protein by simultaneously randomizing all amino acid candidates, and selecting for mutants which exhibit the desired alteration of function. Candidate amino acids are identified by a combination of methods. Enzymatic, binding, structural and other functions of proteins can be altered by the method.

Genome Signature Tags

Patent Number: 7,323,306

Disclosed is a method for analyzing the organismic complexity of a sample through analysis of the nucleic acid in the sample. In the disclosed method, through a series of steps, including digestion with a type II restriction enzyme, ligation of capture adapters and linkers and digestion with a type IIS restriction enzyme, genome signature tags are produced. The sequences of a statistically significant number of the signature tags are determined and the sequences are used to identify and quantify the organisms in the sample. Various embodiments of the invention described herein include methods for using single point genome signature tags to analyze the related families present in a sample, methods for analyzing sequences associated with hyper- and hypo-methylated CpG islands, methods for visualizing organismic complexity change in a sampling location over time and methods for generating the genome signature tag profile of a sample of fragmented DNA.

Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

Patent Number: 7,361,377

This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

Method and Apparatus for Signal Processing in a Sensor System for Use in Spectroscopy

Patent Number: 7,378,637

A method for processing pulses arriving randomly in time on at least one channel using multiple peak detectors includes asynchronously selecting a non-busy peak detector (PD) in response to a pulse-generated trigger signal, connecting the channel to the selected PD in response to the trigger signal, and detecting a pulse peak amplitude. Amplitude and time of arrival data are output in first-in first-out (FIFO) sequence. An apparatus includes trigger comparators to generate the trigger signal for the pulse-receiving channel, PDs, a switch for connecting the channel to the selected PD, and logic circuitry which maintains the write pointer. Also included, time-to-amplitude converters (TACs) convert time of arrival to analog voltage and an analog multiplexer provides FIFO output. A multi-element sensor system for spectroscopy includes detector elements, channels, trigger comparators, PDs, a switch, and a logic circuit with asynchronous write pointer. The system includes TACs, a multiplexer and analog-to-digital converter.

Hydrogen absorption induced metal deposition on palladium and palladium-alloy particles

Patent Number: 7,507,495

The present invention relates to methods for producing metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The method includes contacting hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles with one or more metal salts to produce a sub-monoatomic or monoatomic metal- or metal-alloy coating on the surface of the hydrogen-absorbed palladium or palladium-alloy particles. The invention also relates to methods for producing catalysts and methods for producing electrical energy using the metal-coated palladium or palladium-alloy particles of the present invention.

Sagittal focusing Laue monochromator

Patent Number: 7,508,912

An x-ray focusing device generally includes a slide pivotable about a pivot point defined at a forward end thereof, a rail unit fixed with respect to the pivotable slide, a forward crystal for focusing x-rays disposed at the forward end of the pivotable slide and a rearward crystal for focusing x-rays movably coupled to the pivotable slide and the fixed rail unit at a distance rearward from the forward crystal. The forward and rearward crystals define reciprocal angles of incidence with respect to the pivot point, wherein pivoting of the slide about the pivot point changes the incidence angles of the forward and rearward crystals while simultaneously changing the distance between the forward and rearward crystals.

Regeneration of aluminum hydride

Patent Number: 7,521,037

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

High Density Growth of T7 Expression Strains with Auto-Induction Option

Patent Number: 7,560,264

Disclosed is a method for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, the transcription being under the control of a promoter whose activity can be induced by an exogenous inducer whose ability to induce said promoter is dependent on the metabolic state of said bacterial cells. Initially, a culture media is provided which includes: i) an inducer that causes induction of transcription from said promoter in said bacterial cells; and ii) a metabolite that prevents induction by said inducer, the concentration of said metabolite being adjusted so as to substantially preclude induction by said inducer in the early stages of growth of the bacterial culture, but such that said metabolite is depleted to a level that allows induction by said inducer at a later stage of growth. The culture medium is inoculated with a bacterial inoculum, the inoculum comprising bacterial cells containing cloned DNA, the transcription of which is induced by said inducer. The culture is then incubated under conditions appropriate for growth of the bacterial cells.

Mercury Contamination Extraction

Patent Number: 7,589,248

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Methods of controlling hydrogen fluoride pressure during chemical fabrication processes

Patent Number: 7,622,426

The present invention is a method for producing a crystalline end-product. The method comprising exposing a fluoride-containing precursor to a hydrogen fluoride absorber under conditions suitable for the conversion of the precursor into the crystalline end-product.

ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

Patent Number: 7,655,833

The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

Mercury contamination extraction

Patent Number: 7,692,058

Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

Platinum- and platinum alloy-coated palladium and palladium alloy particles and uses thereof

Patent Number: 7,691,780

The present invention relates to particle and nanoparticle composites useful as oxygen-reduction electrocatalysts. The particle composites are composed of a palladium or palladium-alloy particle or nanoparticle substrate coated with an atomic submonolayer, monolayer, bilayer, or trilayer of zerovalent platinum atoms. The invention also relates to a catalyst and a fuel cell containing the particle or nanoparticle composites of the invention. The invention additionally includes methods for oxygen reduction and production of electrical energy by using the particle and nanoparticle composites of the invention.

Electrocatalysts having gold monolayers on platinum nanoparticle cores, and uses thereof

Patent Number: 7,704,919

The invention relates to gold-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of an electrocatalytically active core at least partially encapsulated by an outer shell of gold or gold alloy. The invention more particularly relates to such particles having a noble metal-containing core, and more particularly, a platinum or platinum alloy core. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts Using a Metal Cation Adsorption/Reduction and Adatom Replacement by More Noble Ones

Patent Number: 7,704,918

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

High Density Growth of T7 Expression Strains with Auto-Induction Option

Patent Number: 7,704,722

Methods for promoting and suppressing auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of T7 expression strains are disclosed.

Assembly of Ordered Carbon Shells on Semiconducting Nanomaterials

Patent Number: 7,714,317

In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

High Density Growth of T7 Expression Strains with Auto-Induction Option

Patent Number: 7,759,109

A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

Activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions and uses thereof

Patent Number: 7,837,976

In one aspect, the invention relates to activated aluminum hydride hydrogen storage compositions containing aluminum hydride in the presence of, or absence of, hydrogen desorption stimulants. The invention particularly relates to such compositions having one or more hydrogen desorption stimulants selected from metal hydrides and metal aluminum hydrides. In another aspect, the invention relates to methods for generating hydrogen from such hydrogen storage compositions.

Electrocatalysts having platinum monolayers on palladium, palladium alloy, and gold alloy nanoparticle cores, and uses thereof

Patent Number: 7,855,021

The invention relates to platinum-coated particles useful as fuel cell electrocatalysts. The particles are composed of a noble metal or metal alloy core at least partially encapsulated by an atomically thin surface layer of platinum atoms. The invention particularly relates to such particles having a palladium, palladium alloy, gold alloy, or rhenium alloy core encapsulated by an atomic monolayer of platinum. In other embodiments, the invention relates to fuel cells containing these electrocatalysts and methods for generating electrical energy therefrom.

Multi-Anode Ionization Chamber

Patent Number: 7,858,949

The present invention includes a high-energy detector having a cathode chamber, a support member, and anode segments. The cathode chamber extends along a longitudinal axis. The support member is fixed within the cathode chamber and extends from the first end of the cathode chamber to the second end of the cathode chamber. The anode segments are supported by the support member and are spaced along the longitudinal surface of the support member. The anode segments are configured to generate at least a first electrical signal in response to electrons impinging thereon.

Fiducial marker for correlating images

Patent Number: 7,965,820

The invention relates to a fiducial marker having a marking grid that is used to correlate and view images produced by different imaging modalities or different imaging and viewing modalities. More specifically, the invention relates to the fiducial marking grid that has a grid pattern for producing either a viewing image and/or a first analytical image that can be overlaid with at least one other second analytical image in order to view a light path or to image different imaging modalities. Depending on the analysis, the grid pattern has a single layer of a certain thickness or at least two layers of certain thicknesses. In either case, the grid pattern is imageable by each imaging or viewing modality used in the analysis. Further, when viewing a light path, the light path of the analytical modality cannot be visualized by viewing modality (e.g., a light microscope objective). By correlating these images, the ability to analyze a thin sample that is, for example, biological in nature but yet contains trace metal ions is enhanced. Specifically, it is desired to analyze both the organic matter of the biological sample and the trace metal ions contained within the biological sample without adding or using extrinsic labels or stains.

Apparatus for dispensing material

Patent Number: 7,972,560

An apparatus capable of dispensing drops of material with volumes on the order of zeptoliters is described. In some embodiments of the inventive pipette the size of the droplets so dispensed is determined by the size of a hole, or channel, through a carbon shell encapsulating a reservoir that contains material to be dispensed. The channel may be formed by irradiation with an electron beam or other high-energy beam capable of focusing to a spot size less than about 5 nanometers. In some embodiments, the dispensed droplet remains attached to the pipette by a small thread of material, an atomic scale meniscus, forming a virtually free-standing droplet. In some embodiments the droplet may wet the pipette tip and take on attributes of supported drops. Methods for fabricating and using the pipette are also described.

Simple, Rapid Method for the Preparation of Isotopically Labeled Formaldehyde

Patent Number: 8,030,526

Isotopically labeled formaldehyde (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O) is prepared from labeled methyl iodide (*C.sup..sctn.H.sub.3I) by reaction with an oxygen nucleophile having a pendant leaving group. The mild and efficient reaction conditions result in good yields of *C.sup..sctn.H.sub.2O with little or no *C isotopic dilution. The simple, efficient production of .sup.11CH.sub.2O is described. The use of the .sup.11CH.sub.2O for the formation of positron emission tomography tracer compounds is described. The reaction can be incorporated into automated equipment available to radiochemistry laboratories. The isotopically labeled formaldehyde can be used in a variety of reactions to provide radiotracer compounds for imaging studies as well as for scintillation counting and autoradiography.

Electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation at fuel cell anodes

Patent Number: 8,048,548

In some embodiments a ternary electrocatalyst is provided. The electrocatalyst can be used in an anode for oxidizing alcohol in a fuel cell. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst may include a noble metal particle having a surface decorated with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh. The noble metal particles may include platinum, palladium, ruthenium, iridium, gold, and combinations thereof. In some embodiments, the ternary electrocatalyst includes SnO.sub.2 particles having a surface decorated with clusters of a noble metal and Rh. Some ternary electrocatalysts include noble metal particles with clusters of SnO.sub.2 and Rh at their surfaces. In some embodiments the electrocatalyst particle cores are nanoparticles. Some embodiments of the invention provide a fuel cell including an anode incorporating the ternary electrocatalyst. In some aspects a method of using ternary electrocatalysts of Pt, Rh, and SnO.sub.2 to oxidize an alcohol in a fuel cell is described.

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

Patent Number: 8,062,552

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

High-energy detector

Patent Number: 8,063,378

The preferred embodiments are directed to a high-energy detector that is electrically shielded using an anode, a cathode, and a conducting shield to substantially reduce or eliminate electrically unshielded area. The anode and the cathode are disposed at opposite ends of the detector and the conducting shield substantially surrounds at least a portion of the longitudinal surface of the detector. The conducting shield extends longitudinally to the anode end of the detector and substantially surrounds at least a portion of the detector. Signals read from one or more of the anode, cathode, and conducting shield can be used to determine the number of electrons that are liberated as a result of high-energy particles impinge on the detector. A correction technique can be implemented to correct for liberated electron that become trapped to improve the energy resolution of the high-energy detectors disclosed herein.

Method of Treating Depression

Patent Number: 8,101,600

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

Transmission electron microscope sample holder with optical features

Patent Number: 8,143,593

A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

High temperature interfacial superconductivity

Patent Number: 8,204,564

High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

Fluorinated precursors of superconducting ceramics, and methods of making the same

Patent Number: 8,216,978

This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

Patent Number: 8,241,887

A bacterial growth medium for promoting auto-induction of transcription of cloned DNA in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a lac repressor. Also disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for improving the production of a selenomethionine-containing protein or polypeptide in a bacterial cell, the protein or polypeptide being produced by recombinant DNA techniques from a lac or T7lac promoter, the bacterial cell encoding a vitamin B12-dependent homocysteine methylase. Finally, disclosed is a bacterial growth medium for suppressing auto-induction of expression in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise, said transcription being under the control of lac repressor.

High dynamic range charge measurements

Patent Number: 8,260,565

A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

Patent Number: 8,263,742

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Regeneration of aluminum hydride

Patent Number: 8,268,288

The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof

Method and apparatus for the measurement of signals from radiation sensors

Patent Number: 8,269,180

The preferred embodiments of the present invention include a device for measuring an ionizing event in a radiation sensor. The device can include a charge amplifier and a timing shaper. The charge amplifier receives a cathode signal and is configured to output an amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is operatively connected to the charge amplifier to receive the amplified cathode signal. The timing shaper is configured to generate a first pulse in response to a beginning of the ionizing event and a second pulse in response to an end of the ionizing event. The first and second pulses are associated with a depth of interaction of the ionizing event and are generated in response to a slope of the amplified cathode signal changing.

Assembly of ordered carbon shells on semiconducting nanomaterials

Patent Number: 8,278,124

In some embodiments of the invention, encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described. In certain embodiments the nanostructures described are semiconducting nanomaterials encapsulated with ordered carbon shells. In some aspects a method for producing encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials is disclosed. In some embodiments applications of encapsulated semiconducting nanomaterials are described.

Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates

Patent Number: 8,308,989

The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen.

Multi-window signal processing electronics architecture for photon counting with multi-element sensors

Patent Number: 8,354,650

A radiation detection and counting system (2) includes a radiation detector element (5) for outputting a signal related to an energy of a radiation event received thereby and an amplifier (8) for amplifying the signal output by the detector element (5). A gain equalization circuit (10) adjusts the gain of the amplified output signal and a plurality of comparators (12) compare the gain adjusted amplified output signal to a like plurality of different valued threshold signals that are independently adjustable of each other A plurality of counters (20) is operative whereupon only the counter associated with the one comparator (12) that changes state in response to the peak of the gain adjusted amplified output signal exceeding the value of the trigger threshold signal thereof is incremented. A storage (24) stores the incremented value of each counter (20) accumulated over a sample time interval and data output logic circuit (26) transfers the stored accumulated counts out of the storage.

Methods for detection of methyl-CpG dinucleotides

Patent Number: 8,361,746

The invention provides methods for enriching methyl-CpG sequences from a DNA sample. The method makes use of conversion of cytosine residues to uracil under conditions in which methyl-cytosine residues are preserved. Additional methods of the invention enable to preservation of the context of me-CpG dinucleotides. The invention also provides a recombinant, full length and substantially pure McrA protein (rMcrA) for binding and isolation of DNA fragments containing the sequence 5'-C.sup.MeCpGG-3'. Methods for making and using the rMcrA protein, and derivatives thereof are provided.

Nanodevices for spintronics and methods of using same

Patent Number: 8,378,329

Graphene magnet multilayers (GMMs) are employed to facilitate development of spintronic devices. The GMMs can include a sheet of monolayer (ML) or few-layer (FL) graphene in contact with a magnetic material, such as a ferromagnetic (FM) or an antiferromagnetic material. Electrode terminals can be disposed on the GMMs to be in electrical contact with the graphene. A magnetic field effect is induced in the graphene sheet based on an exchange magnetic field resulting from a magnetization of the magnetic material which is in contact with graphene. Electrical characteristics of the graphene can be manipulated based on the magnetization of the magnetic material in the GMM.

Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

Patent Number: 8,389,387

Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au�"Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

High density growth of T7 expression strains with auto-induction option

Patent Number: 8,399,217

A method for promoting and suppressing auto-induction of transcription of a cloned gene 1 of bacteriophage T7 in cultures of bacterial cells grown batchwise is disclosed. The transcription is under the control of a promoter whose activity can be induced by an exogenous inducer whose ability to induce said promoter is dependent on the metabolic state of said bacterial cells.

Platinum-based electrocatalysts synthesized by depositing contiguous adlayers on carbon nanostructure

Patent Number: 8,404,613

High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means and the nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. Subsequent film growth may be performed via the initial quasi-underpotential deposition of a non-noble metal followed by immersion in a solution comprising a more noble metal. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

Method of treating depression

Patent Number: 8,415,344

Methods for treatment of depression-related mood disorders in mammals, particularly humans are disclosed. The methods of the invention include administration of compounds capable of enhancing glutamate transporter activity in the brain of mammals suffering from depression. ATP-sensitive K.sup.+ channel openers and .beta.-lactam antibiotics are used to enhance glutamate transport and to treat depression-related mood disorders and depressive symptoms.

DNA-guided nanoparticle assemblies

Patent Number: 8,487,084

In some embodiments, DNA-capped nanoparticles are used to define a degree of crystalline order in assemblies thereof. In some embodiments, thermodynamically reversible and stable body-centered cubic (bcc) structures, with particles occupying <.about.10% of the unit cell, are formed. Designs and pathways amenable to the crystallization of particle assemblies are identified. In some embodiments, a plasmonic crystal is provided. In some aspects, a method for controlling the properties of particle assemblages is provided. In some embodiments a catalyst is formed from nanoparticles linked by nucleic acid sequences and forming an open crystal structure with catalytically active agents attached to the crystal on its surface or in interstices.

Sample Holder with Optical Features

Patent Number: 8,497,487

A sample holder for holding a sample to be observed for research purposes, particularly in a transmission electron microscope (TEM), generally includes an external alignment part for directing a light beam in a predetermined beam direction, a sample holder body in optical communication with the external alignment part and a sample support member disposed at a distal end of the sample holder body opposite the external alignment part for holding a sample to be analyzed. The sample holder body defines an internal conduit for the light beam and the sample support member includes a light beam positioner for directing the light beam between the sample holder body and the sample held by the sample support member.

Method and apparatus for low power analog-to-digital conversion

Patent Number: 8,547,271

A method and apparatus for analog-to-digital conversion. An Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) includes M ADC.sub.j, j=1, 2, . . . , M. Each ADC.sub.j comprises a number of cells each of which comprises a first switch, a second switch, a current sink and an inverter. An inverter of a cell in an ADC.sub.j changes state in response to a current associate with an input signal of the ADC.sub.j exceeding a threshold, thus switching on the next cell. Each ADC.sub.j is enabled to perform analog-to-digital conversion on a residual current of a previous ADC.sub.j-1 after the previous ADC.sub.j-1 has completed its analog-to-digital conversion and has been disabled.

Hybrid Anode For Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

Patent Number: 8,586,969

The present invention relates to a novel hybrid anode configuration for a radiation detector that effectively reduces the edge effect of surface defects on the internal electric field in compound semiconductor detectors by focusing the internal electric field of the detector and redirecting drifting carriers away from the side surfaces of the semiconductor toward the collection electrode(s).

Test surfaces useful for calibration of surface profilometers

Patent Number: 8,616,044

The present invention provides for test surfaces and methods for calibration of surface profilometers, including interferometric and atomic force microscopes. Calibration is performed using a specially designed test surface, or the Binary Pseudo-random (BPR) grating (array). Utilizing the BPR grating (array) to measure the power spectral density (PSD) spectrum, the profilometer is calibrated by determining the instrumental modulation transfer function (IMTF).

Method and apparatus for analog pulse pile-up rejection

Patent Number: 8,618,495

A method and apparatus for pulse pile-up rejection are disclosed. The apparatus comprises a delay value application constituent configured to receive a threshold-crossing time value, and provide an adjustable value according to a delay value and the threshold-crossing time value; and a comparison constituent configured to receive a peak-occurrence time value and the adjustable value, compare the peak-occurrence time value with the adjustable value, indicate pulse acceptance if the peak-occurrence time value is less than or equal to the adjustable value, and indicate pulse rejection if the peak-occurrence time value is greater than the adjustable value.

Fluorinated Precursors of Superconducting Ceramics, and Methods of Making the Same

Patent Number: 8,653,005

This invention provides a method of making a fluorinated precursor of a superconducting ceramic. The method comprises providing a solution comprising a rare earth salt, an alkaline earth metal salt and a copper salt; spraying the solution onto a substrate to provide a film-covered substrate; and heating the film-covered substrate in an atmosphere containing fluorinated gas to provide the fluorinated precursor.

Azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene) and method of forming same

Patent Number: 8,679,730

The invention relates azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)s. Various azide functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)s and intermediates are disclosed and described, as well as method for making novel monomers that are synthesized and transformed into P3HT-N.sub.mp for use as organic conducting polymers in organic photovoltaic devices.

Electrodes synthesized from carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal metal adlayer

Patent Number: 8,699,207

High-surface-area carbon nanostructures coated with a smooth and conformal submonolayer-to-multilayer thin metal films and their method of manufacture are described. The preferred manufacturing process involves the initial oxidation of the carbon nanostructures followed by a surface preparation process involving immersion in a solution with the desired pH to create negative surface dipoles. The nanostructures are subsequently immersed in an alkaline solution containing a suitable quantity of non-noble metal ions which adsorb at surface reaction sites. The metal ions are then reduced via chemical or electrical means. The nanostructures are exposed to a solution containing a salt of one or more noble metals which replace adsorbed non-noble surface metal atoms by galvanic displacement. The process can be controlled and repeated to obtain a desired film coverage. The resulting coated nanostructures may be used, for example, as high-performance electrodes in supercapacitors, batteries, or other electric storage devices.

Controllable assembly and disassembly of nanoparticle systems via protein and DNA agents

Patent Number: 8,729,012

The invention relates to the use of peptides, proteins, and other oligomers to provide a means by which normally quenched nanoparticle fluorescence may be recovered upon detection of a target molecule. Further, the inventive technology provides a structure and method to carry out detection of target molecules without the need to label the target molecules before detection. In another aspect, a method for forming arbitrarily shaped two- and three-dimensional protein-mediated nanoparticle structures and the resulting structures are described. Proteins mediating structure formation may themselves be functionalized with a variety of useful moieties, including catalytic functional groups.

Processing of monolayer materials via interfacial reactions

Patent Number: 8,728,433

A method of forming and processing of graphene is disclosed based on exposure and selective intercalation of the partially graphene-covered metal substrate with atomic or molecular intercalation species such as oxygen (O.sub.2) and nitrogen oxide (NO.sub.2). The process of intercalation lifts the strong metal-carbon coupling and restores the characteristic Dirac behavior of isolated monolayer graphene. The interface of graphene with metals or metal-decorated substrates also provides for controlled chemical reactions based on novel functionality of the confined space between a metal surface and a graphene sheet.

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