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Brookhaven Lecture Archive: 401 – Current Year

  1. Brookhaven Lecture

    "516th Brookhaven Lecture: 'From NSLS to NSLS-II and Beyond: Accelerator Physics Challenges'"

    Tuesday, August 8, 2017, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Larry Carr

  2. Brookhaven Lecture

    "515th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Structural Biology: Studying Living Things as They Jiggle and Wiggle'"

    Presented by Sean McSweeney, National Synchrotron Light Source II at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, June 29, 2016, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  3. Brookhaven Lecture

    "514th Brookhaven Lecture: Earth Day Edition"

    Presented by Ernie Lewis, Environmental & Climate Sciences Department

    Wednesday, April 20, 2016, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  4. Brookhaven Lecture

    "513th Brookhaven Lecture: Manipulating Nanostructures With Light"

    Presented by Kevin Yager, Center for Functional Nanomaterials, Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, March 30, 2016, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  5. Brookhaven Lecture

    "512th Brookhaven Lecture: Quarks, Gluons & Lattice QCD: Cooking the 'Perfect' Soup With Supercomputers"

    Presented by Swagato Mukherjee, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, February 24, 2016, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  6. Brookhaven Lecture

    "511th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Following Fission Fragments: Nuclear Data for New Neutrino Physics'"

    Libby McCutchan, Nuclear Science & Technology Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, January 20, 2016, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  7. Brookhaven Lecture

    "510th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A New Method to Diagnose Prostate Cancer'"

    Presented by Yonggang Cui, Nonproliferation & National Security Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, December 16, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  8. Brookhaven Lecture

    "Synchrotron Science…and Bugs?"

    Presented by Wah-Keat Lee, NSLS-II

    Wednesday, November 18, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Tom Watson

    Mosquitos infect millions of people with diseases including life-threatening malaria and dengue every year. Other insects are blamed for billions of dollars of damage to crops across the United States. And while most people squirm, swat, and scratch at the sight of insects, othersâ€"albeit far fewer than mostâ€"look to research facilities like ultra-bright x-ray-producing synchrotron light sources for unprecedented views of these six-legged creatures

  9. Brookhaven Lecture

    "508th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Using Nuclei to Catch Shape-Shifting Protons in the Act: One Hypothesis, Two Colliders'"

    Presented by Dennis Perepelitsa, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, October 21, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  10. Brookhaven Lecture

    "507th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Tracking Ion Migrations at the Nanoscale in Rechargeable Batteries'"

    Presented by Dong Su, Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven Lab

    Tuesday, September 29, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  11. Brookhaven Lecture

    "506th Brookhaven Lecture: ''NSLS-II: The New Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven Lab'"

    Presented by Ferdinand Willeke, National Synchrotron Light Source II

    Wednesday, June 24, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  12. Brookhaven Lecture

    "505th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Scanning the Structure of Steel From Nuclear Reactor Vessels'"

    Presented by Lynne Ecker, Nuclear Science & Technology Department

    Wednesday, May 27, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  13. Brookhaven Lecture

    "504th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Catching Catalysis in the Act: In Situ Studies With X-Rays and Electrons'"

    Presented by Dario Stacchiola, Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, April 29, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  14. Brookhaven Lecture

    "503rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Looking for Light From Dark Energy: Building the World's Largest Digital Camera for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope'"

    Presented by Paul O'Connor, Instrumentation Division

    Wednesday, March 25, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

    O'Connor will discuss will how the technological challenges involved in achieving the Large Synoptic Space Telescope's ambitious performance goals were met as well as proposals for a new generation of sensor technology for future astrophysical programs.

  15. Brookhaven Lecture

    "502nd Brookhaven Lecture 'Expanding Plant Oil Production: Learning How to Make Leaves Fat'"

    Presented by Changcheng Xu, Biological, Environmental & Climate Sciences Department

    Wednesday, February 25, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  16. Brookhaven Lecture

    "501st Brookhaven Lecture: Negative Particles for Positive Breakthroughs: Characterizing Electrons in Novel Materials at NSLS-II"

    Presented by Ignace Jarrige, Photon Sciences Directorate

    Wednesday, January 21, 2015, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

    During the 501st Brookhaven Lecture, Ignace Jarrige will discuss different ways electrons behave and affect unique materials' properties. He will then explain how the new Soft Inelastic X-ray Scattering (SIX) beamline—an extra-long beamline he is developing at NSLS-II—will measure how x-rays excite atomic bonds in new materials researchers are inventing around the world. Jarrige and his collaborators will use this new tool to unravel mysteries of electrons' collective behavior with unprecedented accuracy as they witness emerging phenomena such as superconductivity—the ability to conduct electricity with zero resistance—magnetism, and other phenomena that could lead to faster trains, more powerful computer processors, and far more efficient electrical grids.

  17. Brookhaven Lecture

    "500th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Small Science, Big Impact: Basic Research with Bacteriophage T7'"

    Presented by Bill Studier, Biological, Environmental & Climate Sciences Department

    Wednesday, December 17, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  18. Brookhaven Lecture

    "499th Brookhaven Lecture 'Artificial Photosynthesis: Making and Breaking Bonds with Protons and Electrons'"

    Presented by Dmitry E. Polyansky, Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, November 19, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  19. Brookhaven Lecture

    "498th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Vector Boson Scattering: Watching the Higgs Boson at Work with the ATLAS Particle Detector'"

    Presented by Marc-Andre Pleier, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, October 22, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Thomas Watson

  20. Brookhaven Lecture

    "497th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Super-Computing Fundamental Particle & Nuclear Physics'"

    Presented by Taku Izubuchi, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, September 24, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  21. Brookhaven Lecture

    "496th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Special PET Scans Seeking Symmetry in Quark-Gluon Plasma'"

    Presented by Lijuan Ruan, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, July 23, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  22. Brookhaven Lecture

    "495th Brookhaven Lecture: 'To See or Not to See a Warhead: Imaging Nuclear Weapons With Neutrons'"

    Presented by Istvan Dioszegi, Nonproliferation and National Security Department

    Wednesday, June 18, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    The stakes are high when it comes to world powers and nuclear weaponsâ€"very highâ€"and scientists from Brookhaven Lab's Nonproliferation & National Security Department are developing advanced neutron-imaging techniques to prepare for future inspections. Find out how with Istvan Dioszegi at the 495th Brookhaven Lecture on Wednesday, June 18.

  23. Brookhaven Lecture

    "494th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Manipulating Light to Understand and Improve Solar Cells'"

    Presented by Matthew Eisaman, Sustainable Energy Technologies Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, April 16, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  24. Brookhaven Lecture

    "493rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Smallest Drops of the Hottest Matter? New Investigations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider'"

    Presented by Anne Sickles, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, March 19, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  25. Brookhaven Lecture

    "492nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds'"

    Presented by Mike Jensen, Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, February 19, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    Join Michael Jensen of the Environmental Sciences Department for the 492nd Brookhaven Lecture, titled "What Goes Up Must Come Down: The Lifecycle of Convective Clouds," in Berkner Hall at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, Feb. 19. All are invited to attend this free talk, which is open to the public. Refreshments will be offered before and after the lecture. Visitors to the Lab 16 and older must carry a photo ID while on site.

  26. Brookhaven Lecture

    "491st Brookhaven Lecture 'A Fast, Versatile Nanoprobe for Complex Materials: The Sub-micron Resolution X-ray Spectroscopy Beamline at NSLS-II'"

    Presented by Juergen Thieme, Brookhaven Lab's Photon Sciences Directorate

    Thursday, February 6, 2014, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  27. Brookhaven Lecture

    "490th Brookhaven Lecture: The Shape and Flow of Heavy Ion Collisions"

    Presented by Bjoern Schenke, Goldhaber Fellow, Physics Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, December 18, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  28. Brookhaven Lecture

    "489th Brookhaven Lecture 'Doing More With Less: Cost-effective, Compact Particle Accelerators'"

    Tuesday, October 22, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    During his talk, Dejan Trbojevic of Brookhaven Lab's Collider-Accelerator Department will provide an overview of accelerator technologies and techniquesâ€"particularly a non-scaling, fixed-focused alternating gradientâ€"to focus particle beams using fewer, smaller magnets. He will then discuss how these technologies will benefit eRHIC and other applications, including particle therapies being developed to combat cancer.

  29. Brookhaven Lecture

    "488th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Magic Lenses for RHIC: Compensating beam-beam interaction'"

    Presented by Yun Luo, Collider-Accelerator Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, July 17, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    During this lecture, Luo will start by discussing some collider fundamentals and the challenges of increasing rates of particle collisions, or luminosity, at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab. He will then introduce the electron lens system he helped develop at the Lab as he explains how this tool could help double the luminosity at RHIC and prepare the machine for physicists' future endeavors.

  30. Brookhaven Lecture

    "487th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Why Has Earth NOT Warmed as Much as Expected? And Why Is This So Important?'"

    Presented by Stephen Schwartz, Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, May 15, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  31. Brookhaven Lecture

    "486th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Hard X-ray Nanoprobe at NSLS-II: A Big Microscope to Tackle Challenges at the Nanoscale'"

    Presented by Yong Chu, Photon Sciences Directorate at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, April 17, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    During the 486th Brookhaven Lecture, Yong Chu of the Photon Sciences Directorate will illustrate unique challenges and innovative approaches for x-ray microscopy at the nanoscale—measured in billionths of a meter. He will also discuss measurement capabilities for the first science experiments at NSLS-II.

  32. Brookhaven Lecture

    "485th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Plasma Window'"

    Presented by Ady Hershcovitch, Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, March 20, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    Space…the final frontier. Think back to a Star Trek or Star Wars scene taking place in a space station. Remember ships taking off through large bay doors directly into the vast, empty void of space while people stood on the decks breathing freely without scuba tanks or air supplies on their backs? Sure that was science fiction, but the technology that could separate the empty space outside from the air inside without a sheet of glass or metal is, in fact, real. This technology��""called a plasma window"��"was developed at Brookhaven Lab and is being used at scientific research facilities around the world. The plasma window has made a difficult but ultra-powerful welding technique more versatile too. On Wednesday, March 20, join Ady Hershcovitch of the Collider-Accelerator Department, for the 485th Brookhaven Lecture, titled "The Plasma Window." All are invited to attend this free talk, which is open to the public and will be held in Berkner Hall at 4 p.m. Refreshments will be offered before and after the lecture. Visitors to the Lab age 16 and older must carry a photo ID while on site. To join Hershcovitch for dinner at a restaurant off site after the talk, contact Sandy Asselta (Ext. 4550).

  33. Brookhaven Lecture

    "484th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Nuclear Weapons Stability or Anarchy in the 21st Century: China-India-Pakistan'"

    Presented by Tom Graham, Nonproliferation & National Security Department at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, February 20, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  34. Brookhaven Lecture

    "483rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Coherent X-ray Scattering: Dynamics in Crowded Colloids and Other Stories'"

    Presented by Andrei Fluerasu, Photon Sciences Directorate at Brookhaven Lab

    Wednesday, January 16, 2013, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    Over the last two decades, X-ray Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (XPCS) has become an increasingly important technique in the study of dynamical phenomena in materials. Its applications range from the study of atomic diffusion in disordered metallic system to that of micron-scale fluctuations at polymer surfaces. Achieving a profound understanding of the dynamical properties of materials is arguably one of the most important elements that will enable a transition from a science based on observation to a science based on control - designing materials with specific "tailored" properties, drawing inspiration from biological systems to design novel materials with specific new or improved functionalities, developing materials that will address our society's grand energy challenges. As a consequence, the Coherent Hard X-ray beamline at the NSLS-II light source, one of the first six "project beamlines" to be built with the storage ring, will be dedicated to XPCS and the study of dynamics of materials using intense coherent beams. Here I will describe some of our recent results and possible future applications of XPCS aiming at a better understanding of the dynamics in complex soft materials. In particular I will focus on the dynamics of dense -"crowded"- colloidal suspensions and the dynamics of colloids under flow. Before finalizing, I will show preliminary results demonstrating a path towards measuring complex dynamics in biological systems and biological hybrid materials.

  35. Brookhaven Lecture

    "482nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Diamond, An X-ray's Best Friend'"

    Presented by John Smedley, Instrumentation Division

    Wednesday, December 19, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    John Smedley of the Instrumentation Division will give the 482nd Brookhaven Lecture, titled, "Diamond, An X-ray's Best Friend," on Wednesday, December 19, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall. More information about this talk is available in the Monday Memo of December 17: To join Smedley for dinner at a restaurant off-site after the talk, contact Donna Grabowski (, Ext. 2720). About the Speaker Smedley earned a Ph.D. in accelerator physics from Stony Brook University in 2001 and a bachelor's degree in physics and mathematics from Johns Hopkins University in 1994. A member of Brookhaven Lab's Instrumentation Division, Smedley first arrived at the Lab in 1993 as a summer student. He officially joined the Brookhaven as an assistant physicist in 2004, and was promoted to the title associate physicist in 2006 and then physicist in 2009.

  36. Brookhaven Lecture

    "481st Brookhaven Lecture: 'From RHIC to eRHIC: Challenges and Opportunities for Accelerator Science'"

    Presented by Vladimir Litvinenko, Brookhaven Lab's Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, November 14, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

  37. Brookhaven Lecture

    "480th Brookhaven Lecture: 'PET Plants: Imaging Natural Processes for Renewable Energy From Plants'"

    Presented by Ben Babst, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Goldhaber Fellow

    Wednesday, September 19, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen M. Orville

  38. Brookhaven Lecture

    "479th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Charting Plant Metabolism: Quantification of Metabolic Fluxes and Predictive Mathematical Models'"

    Presented by Jörg Schwender, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Biology Department

    Wednesday, June 20, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen M. Orville

  39. Brookhaven Lecture

    "478th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A New Spin On Magnets: Using X-Rays to Explore Novel Magnetic Materials'"

    Presented by Dario Arena, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Photon Sciences

    Thursday, May 24, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen M. Orville

  40. Brookhaven Lecture

    "477th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Supercomputers and Mathematical Models for Multiphysics Simulations in Energy and Accelerator Sciences'"

    Presented by Roman Samulyak, Computational Science Center

    Wednesday, April 25, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    The Computational Science Center at Brookhaven Lab is home to several supercomputers that enable scientists to gain new insights through numerical experiments and simulations. Applied mathematics, computer science, and physics theory are combined to develop sophisticated models, numerical algorithms, and supercomputer codes to simulate complex systems such as particle accelerators and energy sources. Samulyak will discuss the goal of developing mathematical models accurate and reliable enough for simulated experiments to replace actual experiments. He will also explain how supercomputers and numerical tools are used to investigate the nature of turbulence, design components for future muon colliders, evaluate new ideas for nuclear fusion, and more.

  41. Brookhaven Lecture

    "476th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Microelectronics for Science - Enabling New Detectors'"

    Presented by Gianluigi De Geronimo, Instrumentation Division

    Wednesday, March 21, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    Think of the tiny capacitors, transistors, and other electronic components that allow us to make phone calls from the freezer section of the grocery store and provide three-dimensional images of our insides that doctors can use to diagnose health problems. Just as the microelectronics inside these devices are shaping â€" and even saving â€" our lives, they can also be used as special sets of eyes for scientists exploring what would otherwise be invisible, from the ultra small to the ultra far away. The Instrumentation Division at Brookhaven Lab custom-builds some of the world's most advanced microelectronics for scientists investigating the unknown. During his talk, De Geronimo will discuss the basic principles of microelectronics, how they have become smaller and faster since the 1960s, and how designers may increase the speed of microelectronics after they can't be made any smaller. He will then explain how the Instrumentation Division collaborates with scientists to develop unique application-specific integrated circuits for detectors that enable discoveries, push research, and change lives.

  42. Brookhaven Lecture

    "475th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A Really Good Hammer: Quantification of Mass Transfer Using Perfluorocarbon Tracers'"

    Presented by Tom Watson, Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, February 15, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    In his lecture, Tom Watson will explain why perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) are unique tools. Their extremely low background level ��" detectable at one part per quadrillion ��" allows their transport to be easily tracked. He will describe how Lab researchers used PFTs during the 2005 Urban Dispersion Program field studies in New York City, gathering data to help improve models of how a gas or chemical release might move around Manhattan's tall buildings and canyons. Closer to home, scientists used PFTs to make ventilation measurements in Bldg. 400 on the Lab site to provide data to test air flow models used in determining the effects of passive and active air exchange on the levels of indoor and outdoor air pollution. Watson will explore the future of tracers as a tool and present the plans for future research.

  43. Brookhaven Lecture

    "474th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Self-Assembly by Instruction: Designing Nanoscale Systems Using DNA-Based Approaches'"

    Presented by Oleg Gang, Center for Functional Nanomaterials

    Wednesday, January 18, 2012, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    Nature uses the DNA genetic code to instruct the building of specific proteins and whole organisms in both plants and people. Taking a cue from nature, scientists at BNL devised a way of using strands of synthetic DNA attached to the surface of nanoparticles to instruct them to self-assemble into specific nanoscale structures, clusters, and three-dimensional organizations. Novel materials designed and fabricated this way promise use in photovoltaics, energy storage, catalysis, cell-targeted systems for more effective medical treatments, and bio-molecular sensing for environmental monitoring and medical applications. Gang, who has led this work at the CFN, will explain the rapid evolution of this nanoassembly method, and discuss its present and future applications in highly specific biosensors, optically active nano-materials, and new ways to fabricate complex architectures in a rational manner via self-assembly. Gang and his colleagues used the CFN and the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) facilities to perform their groundbreaking research. At the CFN, the scientists used a electron microscopes and optical methods to visualize the clusters that they fabricated. At the NSLS, they applied x-rays to study a particles-assembly process in solution, DNA's natural environment.

  44. Brookhaven Lecture

    "473rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Multimodal Thinking â€" Medical Imaging with Antimatter and Nuclear Spins'"

    Presented by David Schlyer, Medical Department, BNL

    Wednesday, December 14, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Allen Orville

    The goal of more accurate diagnoses, fewer unwanted biopsies, and better patient care is in sight. For years, researchers at Brookhaven Lab have been developing new scanners that combine PET and MRI imaging techniques. Now, this new multi-modality imaging â€" which provides both anatomical and functional information from one single scan â€" is proving to be an invaluable tool for research in areas ranging from cancer in humans to water transport in plants.

  45. Brookhaven Lecture

    "472nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Ancient Materials and Artworks Illuminated by Synchrotron Light'"

    Presented by Eric Dooryhee, Photon Sciences Dept.

    Thursday, November 17, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    Think of eye makeup in ancient Egypt â€" or pigments and concealed details under the surface of renowned masters' oil paintings â€" or the Mayan Blue pigment that survives to this day on the walls of ancient temples of Mesoamerica. These fascinating items from the world's cultural heritage have one thing in common: all are subjects of scientific investigation using synchrotron light techniques at facilities such as the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). As Dooryhee will explain, a synchrotron is an exceptionally powerful source of "light" (from x-rays to infrared), which permits fast, sensitive experiments to be done without damage on minute samples of objects, using a range of analytical techniques and allowing measurements to be made below the surface. Lately, researchers examining historic artifacts have developed advanced methods and instrumentation that can also help in diagnosing deterioration processes with a view to inventing protective treatments. Dooryhee will show how these techniques, including several that he has worked with himself, have shed light on whether ancient eye makeup could have been a medicine, and on the cause of darkening pigments in paintings such as Van Gogh's "Sunflowers" or Matisse's "Le Bonheur de Vivre," as well as on how to uncover artwork concealed beneath paintings, and how to mimic Mayan Blue to produce durable, non-toxic modern pigments.

  46. Brookhaven Lecture

    "471st Brookhaven Lecture: 'Keeping RHIC's Beam Tight and the Orbit Right: Precision Control of Accelerating Beams'"

    Presented by Michiko Minty, Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, September 21, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has been accelerating ion and proton beams for just over a decade. Collisions between high energy particles are enabled when bunches of particles in each of RHIC's two superconducting rings are guided, focused, and accelerated to nearly the speed of light and then made to collide with similarly accelerated bunches travelling in the opposite direction. To ensure highest collision rates, the beam sizes, if properly maintained during acceleration, are electromagnetically squeezed down to the width of a human hair and then these two-foot-long bunches are made to collide head-on so maximizing the overlap between bunches. Key to achieving ultimate performance are adjustments of the collider system parameters based on continuous precision measurements of the beam's properties. In the past few years, developments have led to improved measurements of the most critical beam properties which in turn has allowed feedback-based beam control â€" a world's first in high energy hadron colliders. The essential achievements and impact on RHIC performance will be presented in this Brookhaven Lecture titled "Keeping RHIC's Beam Tight and the Orbit Right: Precision Control of Accelerating Beams."

  47. Brookhaven Lecture

    "470th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Story on Advancing Linear Accelerators…And Keeping It Straight'"

    Presented by Deepak Raparia, Ph.D., Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, June 15, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Lower costs. Greater efficiency. Those words read like notes from meetings held at Brookhaven Lab and in every other conference room across the country. Higher charged particle densities to increase luminosity and beam power now we're talking about one of Brookhaven Lab's unique specialties. Linear accelerators, or linacs, have come a long way since they were first developed more than 80 years ago. They can be found around the world and have a number of uses. Brookhaven's own 200 MeV linac is a critical component for several operations, including the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer, where commercially unavailable radioisotopes are created for medical and industrial uses, and the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, where scientists are smashing ions into smaller subatomic particles and analyzing the wreckage to better understand how the universe works. During his talk, Raparia will discuss the evolution of linac structures. He will then explain how advances in technology and our understanding particle beam dynamics are being used to develop less expensive, more efficient linacs for the future.

  48. Brookhaven Lecture

    "469th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Skinny on Thin Clouds'"

    Presented by Andrew Vogelman, Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, May 18, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Forget about whether you prefer the Mets or the Yankees. If you wanted to make an educated guess about who will win when the two teams play later this week, you would need to see some data, right? You'd at least want pitchers' earned run averages and batters' batting averages. Just as you would need data to hypothesize which baseball team is more likely to win, climate scientists need lots of data â€" including how much of the sun's energy is blocked or captured by clouds in the atmosphere â€" to assess how things like carbon emissions may affect Earth's climate. Scientists are constantly collecting new data to construct and improve complex climate models to make projections of what Earth's climate will be like in the future. And that's not a bet to get wrong. Vogelmann will begin his talk by discussing the role that clouds â€" thin clouds, in particular â€" play in Earth's energy budget as the sun's rays enter and exit the atmosphere. He will then explain how scientists are working from both the ground and the air to understand better how clouds affect Earth's climate, and why that understanding is necessary to develop more accurate climate models.

  49. Brookhaven Lecture

    "468th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Small Modular Reactors'"

    Presented by Robert Bari, Energy Sciences & Technology Department

    Wednesday, April 20, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    With good reason, much more media attention has focused on nuclear power plants than solar farms, wind farms, or hydroelectric plants during the past month and a half. But as nations around the world demand more energy to power everything from cell phone batteries to drinking water pumps to foundries, nuclear plants are the only non-greenhouse-gas producing option that can be built to operate almost anywhere, and can continue to generate power during droughts, after the sun sets, and when winds die down. To supply this demand for power, designers around the world are competing to develop more affordable nuclear reactors of the future: small modular reactors. Brookhaven Lab is working with DOE to ensure that these reactors are designed to be safe for workers, members of surrounding communities, and the environment and to ensure that the radioactive materials and technology will only be used for peaceful purposes, not weapons. In his talk, Bari will discuss the advantages and challenges of small modular reactors and what drives both international and domestic interest in them. He will also explain how Brookhaven Lab and DOE are working to address the challenges and provide a framework for small modular reactors to be commercialized.

  50. Brookhaven Lecture

    "467th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Experimental Particle Physics in the LHC Era and Possible Implications for Development in Africa'"

    Presented by Ketevi Assamagan, Ph.D., Physics Department

    Wednesday, March 16, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory near Geneva, Switzerland, is the world's largest particle accelerator, built to help answer many of the most fundamental questions in physics. One of its seven detectors is ATLAS, an enormous experiment built with significant contributions from BNL. ATLAS's main goal is to find a particle called Higgs, which may be the source of mass for all matter. Thousands of scientists and engineers from over 100 countries and hundreds of universities and laboratories work at the LHC. Among the countries becoming members of LHC experiments was South Africa, which joined the ALICE experiment in 2001. Then, during August 2010, in Stellenbosch, South Africa, the first African School of Physics held classes on fundamental physics and its applications. Students were selected from all over Africa and beyond. Although many were pursuing or had completed physics degrees, they lacked opportunities to gain specialized knowledge in subatomic physics. The school was funded by institutes in Africa, Europe, and the USA, and scientists from these areas were invited to lecture on proposed topics. Among these lecture topics was the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, and among the invited lecturers was Ketevi Assamagan, a physicist in BNL's Physics Department who works on ATLAS.

  51. Brookhaven Lecture

    "466th Brookhaven Lecture: 'High Temperature Superconducting Magnets: Revolutionizing Next Generation Accelerators and Other Applications'"

    Presented by Ramesh Gupta, Ph.D., Superconducting Magnet Division

    Wednesday, February 16, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino, Ph.D.

    BNL has always been a leader in the world of superconducting magnets, which are essential to the great modern ccelerators such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL, or the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Switzerland. These magnets are made of material that, cooled to 4 Kelvins (K) (-452° Farenheit) become superconducting, that is, lose essentially all resistance to electricity. For the past decade, however, Lab researchers have been exploring the use of new materials that become superconducting at higher temperatures. These materials can operate at the relatively high temperature of 77 K (-351°F), allowing them to be cooled by cheap, plentiful liquid nitrogen, rather than helium, and can create very high magnetic fields. Now far in the lead of this area of research, BNL scientists are exploring avenues for high temperature superconducting magnets that are energy efficient and have magnetic fields that are a million times stronger than the Earth's. If successful, these new magnets could potentially revolutionize usage in future accelerators, play a key role in energy efficiency and storage, and make possible new applications such as muon colliders and MRI screening in remote areas.

  52. Brookhaven Lecture

    "465th Brookhaven Lecture: 'One Hundred Years of Superconductivity: Superconducting Materials and Electric Power Applications'"

    Presented by Qiang Li, Ph.D., Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science Department

    Wednesday, January 19, 2011, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Whaddya know? It was one hundred years ago this year that Dutch physicist Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered that by lowering the temperature of mercury to a blistering cold four degrees Kelvin, the metal became a "superconductor" and allowed electricity to flow through it with very little, if any, resistance. Fast forward one hundred years: now we are looking for new ways to store and transport energy â€" energy we can use to get from one place to another, stay comfortable when the weather outside is not, grow enough healthy food to feed the population, and sustain our ways of life â€" all while trying to protect the planet. Superconductors, with their potential to be über-energy efficient, are likely to play a crucial role in solving these challenges, and researchers at Brookhaven Lab are figuring out just how it can be done. Li will begin his talk with an overview of the first one hundred years of exploring superconductivity. He will also discuss the challenges of developing new superconductors and improving their performance for real-world energy applications, and then explain how basic science researchers at BNL are addressing those challenges. Li earned a Ph.D. in 1991 from Iowa State University, where he completed his doctoral work at DOE's Ames Laboratory. He arrived at Brookhaven Lab as a postdoc that same year. In 1993, Li became an assistant materials scientist at BNL, and an associate materials scientist in 1995. He was promoted to physicist in 1998. In 2009, Li was appointed as group leader for BNL's Advanced Energy Materials group.

  53. Brookhaven Lecture

    "464th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Toward Catalyst Design From Theoretical Calculations'"

    Presented by Ping Liu, Ph.D., Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, December 15, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Catalysts have been used to speed up chemical reactions as long as yeast has been used to make bread rise. Today, catalysts are used everywhere from home kitchens to industrial chemical factories. In the near future, new catalysts being developed at Brookhaven Lab may be used to speed us along our roads and highways as they play a major role in solving the world�s energy challenges. During the lecture, Liu will discuss how theorists and experimentalists at BNL are working together to formulate and test new catalysts that could be used in real-life applications, such as hydrogen-fuel cells that may one day power our cars and trucks.

  54. Brookhaven Lecture

    "463rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'It's No Secret: Fifty-eight Years of National Security Programs at BNL'"

    Presented by Joseph Indusi, Ph.D., Nonproliferation & National Security Department

    Wednesday, November 17, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Prepare for a true tale of suspense and international intrigue. A tale that began in 1952, continued through the Cold War, and is not yet complete today. A tale of unexpected allies. Hear the true tale of one Laboratory's efforts to keep nuclear materials out of the hands of evildoers. Freidlander. Higinbotham. Dodson. Kouts. And many more! See some of BNL's all-star cast in the defining roles that shaped their careers as they worked toward keeping the nation and the world safe from the proliferation of nuclear weapons.

  55. Brookhaven Lecture

    "462nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Tailoring Lignocelluloses for a Sustainable Energy Future'"

    Presented by Chang-Jun Liu, Ph.D., Biology Department

    Thursday, October 21, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Steve Musolino

    Today, the world relies on fossil fuels as a primary energy resource. This resource, however, is limited and associated with rising levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. In consequence, the search for renewable biofuels has become increasingly vital. Solutions thus far have focused on first-generation biofuels, such as corn ethanol and biodiesel. But this is not enough. Chang-Jun Liu of the Biology Department discusses how he and his colleagues are studying a more abundant and environmentally friendly renewable energy source â€" lignocellulosic biomass â€" found in plant cell walls. Liu explaines, plant cell walls provide unlimited quantities of renewable biomass. However, the intertwined lignin and cellulose that make up the cell walls resist decomposition, so obtaining energy from cellulosic biomass is a challenge. Liu and his colleagues are exploring the biosynthesis and molecular regulation of plant cell walls, particularly that of the most formidable polymer â€" lignin. With this knowledge, they will develop novel strategies to tailor plant cell wall's structure and composition for efficient biofuel and biomaterial production.

  56. Brookhaven Lecture

    "461st Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Science and Art of Nuclear Data'"

    Presented by Michal Herman, Ph.D., Energy Sciences & Technology Department, BNL

    Wednesday, September 22, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    Herman discusses how data are collected in the National Nuclear Data Center and made accessible for researchers around the world. He also explains how the data are critical for designing and testing future medical procedures, nuclear reactors, and homeland security applications.

  57. Brookhaven Lecture

    "460th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Wide Band-Gap Semiconductor Radiation Detectors: Science Fiction, Horror Story or Headlines'"

    Presented by Ralph James, Ph.D., Nonproliferation and National Security Department

    Wednesday, August 18, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    With radiation constantly occurring from natural sources all around us — from food, building materials, and rays from the sun, to name a few — detecting radiotracers for medical procedures and other radiation to keep people safe is not easy. In order to make better use of radiation to diagnose or treat certain health conditions, or to track radiological materials being transported, stored, and used, the quest is on to develop improved radiation detectors. James gives a brief introduction on radiation detection and explain how it is used in applications ranging from medical to homeland security. He then discusses how new materials and better ways to analyze them here at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and the future NSLS-II will lead to a new class of radiation detectors that will provide unprecedented advances in medical and industrial imaging, basic science, and the nonproliferation of nuclear materials.

  58. Brookhaven Lecture

    "459th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Ion Sources, Preinjectors and the Road to EBIS'"

    Presented by James Alessi, Ph.D., Collider-Accelerator Department, BNL

    Wednesday, July 21, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    <p>To meet the requirements of the scientific programs of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the NASA Space Radiation Lab, BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department needs a variety of ion sources. Although these sources are a relatively small and inexpensive part of an accelerator, they can have a big impact on the machine's overall performance.</p> <p>For the 459th Brookhaven Lecture, James Alessi will describe C-AD's long history of developing state-of-the-art ion sources for its accelerators, and its current process for source and pre-injector development. He will follow up with a discussion of the features and development status of EBIS, which, as the newest source and preinjector, is in the final stages of commissioning at the end of a five-year construction project.</p>

  59. Brookhaven Lecture

    "458th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Fire, Earth, Water, Iron: Harnessing the Elements to Study Nature's Most Elusive Elementary Particles'"

    Presented by Mary Bishai, Ph.D., Physics Department, BNL

    Wednesday, June 30, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    Scientists are harnessing the properties of immense natural powers to capture and learn more about one of the most minute particles ever known: the neutrino. Ghostlike neutrinos pour continuously in billions per second through the earth and everything on it, yet they interact so weakly with all other material that they pass almost without trace. Already, many years of experiments have yielded great discoveries about the neutrino. For example, there are three types: electron, tau, and muon neutrinos — one for each generation of the lepton family of particles — and they can oscillate, or change from one type to another. Yet deep mysteries remain. What is the mass of the electron neutrino? Could neutrino research shed light on the origin of the matter/anti-matter asymmetry in our Universe? Are there only three generations of leptons? Neutrinos come from many sources, including the fiery heart of the sun. She will describe how in a huge underground body of water in Super-Kamiokande, Japan, scientists proved that neutrinos from cosmic rays change from one type to another. She will also talk about her work with colleagues in ongoing experiments such as MINOS at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois and the Soudan Mine, Minnesota, Daya Bay in China, and the planned Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment stretching between Fermilab and South Dakota, in which earth, iron and other elements play essential roles.

  60. Brookhaven Lecture

    "457th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Aerosol, Cloud, and Climate: From Observation to Model'"

    Presented by Jian Wang, Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department, BNL

    Wednesday, May 12, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    In the last 100 years, the Earth has warmed by about 1�F, glaciers and sea ice have been melting more quickly than previously, especially during the past decade, and the level of the sea has risen about 6-8 inches worldwide. Scientists have long been investigating this phenomenon of �global warming,� which is believed to be at least partly due to the increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the air from burning fossil fuels. Funded by DOE, teams of researchers from BNL and other national labs have been gathering data in the U.S. and internationally to build computer models of climate and weather to help in understanding general patterns, causes, and perhaps, solutions. Among many findings, researchers observed that atmospheric aerosols, minute particles in the atmosphere, can significantly affect global energy balance and climate. Directly, aerosols scatter and absorb sunlight. Indirectly, increased aerosol concentration can lead to smaller cloud droplets, changing clouds in ways that tend to cool global climate and potentially mask overall warming from man-made CO2.

  61. Brookhaven Lecture

    "456th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Getting More From Less: Correlated Single-Crystal Spectroscopy and X-ray Crystallography at the NSLS'"

    Presented by Allen Orville, Ph.D., Biology Department, BNL

    Wednesday, April 21, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    <p>By integrating different techniques to collect complementary data at beam line X26C of the National Syncrotron Light Source (NSLS), Allen Orville and his colleagues of the Macromolecular Crystallography Research Resource are providing new insights into the structures of macromolecules.</p> <p>During the 456th Brookhaven Lecture, on Wednesday, April 21st, Orville will describe his approach and his findings in a talk entitled "Getting More From Less: Correlated Singe-Crystal Spectroscopy and X-Ray Crystallography at the NSLS," beginning at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall. Refreshments will be offered before and after the lecture.</p> <p>During his talk, Orville will discuss his field of protein crystallography, reviewing its landmark discoveries and explaining new ways of using the NSLS and, in the future, the NSLS-II, to build on those discoveries.</p> <p>Allen Orville took his Ph.D. in biology from the University of Minnesota in 1997. After completing a postdoc with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute at the University of Oregon, 1997-2000, he began an assistant professor at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Orville joined BNL's Biology Department in 2006 as an associate biophysicist and was promoted to biophysicist in 2008.</p> <p> To join the lecturer for dinner at an off-site restaurant following his talk, please contact Kathy Folkers, or Ext. 3415.</p>

  62. Brookhaven Lecture

    "455th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Challenges in Accelerating and Colliding Polarized Beams'"

    Presented by Vadim Ptitsyn, Ph.D., Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, February 17, 2010, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino

    At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), scientists are investigating not only the primordial properties of the universe but also another fundamental question of particle physics: the property of "spin." A particle's spin comes from its intrinsic angular momentum and is a basic property such as charge or mass. Many existing and future high energy and nuclear physics experiments rely on accessing spin. These experiments require using beams of polarized particles, which have their spins all pointing in one direction. When used as a probe of matter, beams of polarized particles reveal details of fundamental interactions not accessible with unpolarized particles. Experiments using polarized beams also need accelerators capable of accelerating and colliding such beams while preserving polarization. Achieving this, as in so many extraordinary feats that make science discoveries possible, is easier said than done.

  63. Brookhaven Lecture

    "454th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Self-Assembly of Nanostructured Electronic Devices'"

    Presented by Charles Black, Ph.D., Center for Functional Nanomaterials, BNL

    Wednesday, December 16, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino, Ph.D.

    <p>Given suitable atmospheric conditions, water vapor from the air will crystallize into beautiful structures: snowflakes. Nature provides many other examples of spontaneous organization of materials into regular patterns, which is a process known as self-assembly.</p> <p>Since self-assembly works at all levels, it can be a useful tool for organizing materials on the nanometer scale. In particular, self-assembly provides a precise method for designing materials with improved electronic properties, thereby enabling advances in semiconductor electronics and solar devices.</p> <p>On Wednesday, December 16, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, Charles Black of the Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN) will explore this topic during the 454th Brookhaven Lecture, entitled "Self-Assembly of Nanostructured Electronic Devices." Refreshments will be offered before and after the lecture. To attend this open-to-the-public event, visitors to the Lab ages 16 and older must present photo ID at the Main Gate.</p> <p>During this talk, Dr. Black will discuss examples of how self-assembly is being integrated into semiconductor microelectronics, as advances in the ability to define circuit elements at higher resolution have fueled more than 40 years of performance improvements. Self-assembly also promises advances in the performance of solar devices; thus he will describe his group's recent results with nanostructured photovoltaic devices.</p> <p>Charles Black earned a Ph.D. in physics from Harvard University in 1996. He then worked as a Research Staff Member at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center in Yorktown Heights, New York, until 2006. Black then joined the Center for Functional Nanomaterials at Brookhaven Lab, where he is a scientist and Group Leader for Electronic Materials.</p> <p>To jo

  64. Brookhaven Lecture

    "453rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Striving Toward Energy Sustainability: How Plants Will Play a Role in Our Future'"

    Presented by Richard A. Ferrieri, Ph.D., Medical Department

    Wednesday, October 28, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Stephen Musolino, Ph.D.

    <p>Edible biomass includes sugars from sugar cane or sugar beets, starches from corn kernels or other grains, and vegetable oils. The fibrous, woody and generally inedible portions of plants contain cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, three key cell-wall components that make up roughly 70 percent of total plant biomass.</p> <p>At present, starch can readily be degraded from corn grain into glucose sugar, which is then fermented into ethanol, and an acre of corn can yield roughly 400 gallons of ethanol. In tapping into the food supply to solve the energy crisis, however, corn and other crops have become more expensive as food.</p> <p>One solution lies in breaking down other structural tissues of plants, including the stalks and leaves of corn, grasses and trees. However, the complex carbohydrates in cellulose-containing biomass are more difficult to break down and convert to ethanol. So researchers are trying to engineer plants having optimal sugars for maximizing fuel yield. This is a challenge because only a handful of enzymes associated with the more than 1,000 genes responsible for cell-wall synthesis have had their roles in controlling plant metabolism defined.</p> <p>As Richard Ferrieri, Ph.D., a leader of a biofuel research initiative within the Medical Department, will discuss during the 453rd Brookhaven Lecture, he and his colleagues use short-lived radioisotopes, positron emission tomography and biomarkers that they have developed to perform non-invasive, real time imaging of whole plants. He will explain how the resulting metabolic flux analysis gives insight into engineering plant metabolism further.</p> <p>Richard Ferrieri received his Ph.D. degree in nuclear and radiochemistry from Texas A&M University in 1978 and immediately joined BNL's staff. Now a Chemist, he has over the past 30 years studied a

  65. Brookhaven Lecture

    "452nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Extreme Environments of Next-Generation Energy Systems and Materials: Can They Peacefully Co-Exist?'"

    Presented by Nikolaos Simos

    Wednesday, June 17, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    "What happens to conventional metals near the ocean?" you might ask the workers who are repairing the water tower at Jones Beach. They will tell you that both the tower's steel framework and copper roof show extensive corrosion from the salty air. To power future generations of cars, homes, utility plants, and even particle accelerators, unprecedented levels of efficiency will be needed. Such efficiency will require new unconventional alloys and composite materials that can also withstand high temperatures, intense radiation fluxes, high stresses, and other extreme conditions in highly corrosive environments that accelerate the aging and weakening of materials, as salty air weakens steel and copper During the lecture, Simos will discuss the demands of next-generation energy systems and focus on the extreme conditions that materials used in these systems will perform under. He will also explain Brookhaven Lab's role in past, ongoing, and future experiments aimed to analyze and address materials' abilities to endure these conditions.

  66. Brookhaven Lecture

    "451st Brookhaven Lecture: 'A Tale of Two Hemispheres: Field Studies of Aerosols and Marine Stratocumulus Clouds'"

    Presented by Yin-Nan Lee, Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Dept

    Wednesday, May 13, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Stephen Musolino

    By reflecting sunlight, clouds may be mitigating the warming effect of greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. To discuss the roll that aerosol particles play in the cooling mechanism of clouds, Chemist Yin-Nan Lee of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of the Environmental Sciences Department will discuss "A Tale of Two Hemispheres: Field Studies of Aerosols and Marine Stratocumulus Clouds" during the 451st Brookhaven Lecture, beginning 4 p.m. on Wednesday 13 May in Berkner Hall. All are invited to attend.</p> <p>During his lecture, Dr. Lee will discuss his findings from collaborative studies of stratocumulus clouds over the coastal waters of California and Chile.</p> <p>Yin-Nan Lee earned his B.S. in chemistry from Tunghai University, Taiwan, in 1969. He was then awarded his M.S. in chemistry in 1972 and his Ph.D. in physical organic chemistry from Washington University in St. Louis, Missouri. Following a post-doc at Yale University, Dr. Lee came to BNL in 1979.</p> <p>To join the speaker for a lunch off site the day after the lecture, make your reservation with Nancy Warren, or Ext. 7548.</p>

  67. Brookhaven Lecture

    "450th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Personal Reflections on the Interaction of Science and Government and Possible Lessons for the Present Crisis'"

    Presented by Nicholas Samios, Ph.D., RIKEN BNL Research Center

    Wednesday, May 6, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    The 450th Brookhaven Lecture, to be held today, Wednesday, May 6, will be given by BNL Distinguished Senior Physicist Nicholas Samios, director of the RIKEN BNL Research Center and former Lab Director. Samios will discuss "Personal Reflections on the Interaction of Science and Government and Possible Lessons for the Present Crisis" at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall.

  68. Brookhaven Lecture

    "449th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Global Change and the Terrestrial Biosphere'"

    Presented by Alistair Rogers, Ph.D., Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, April 22, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    <p>Since the Industrial Revolution, the increased use of fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic and unprecedented rise in the concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Most scientists agree that increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases have raised Earth's temperature and, without a reduction in emissions, will continue to do so.</p> <p>Terrestrial ecosystems sustain life on Earth through the production of food, fuel, fiber, clean air, and naturally purified water. But how will agriculture and ecosystems be affected by global change? Rogers will describe the impact of projected climate change on the terrestrial biosphere and explain why plants are not just passive respondents to global change, but play an important role in determining the rate of change.</p> <p>Alistair Rogers earned a B.Sc. in biochemistry and botany from the University College of North Wales, Bangor, in 1994, and a Ph.D. in biology from the University of Essex, Colchester, England, in 1998, the same year he joined Brookhaven Lab as a research associate. He is currently a scientist in Brookhaven's Environmental Sciences Department. From 2004 to 2005, he was deputy chair of the Earth Systems Science Division, and since 2005 he has been head of the Carbon Cycle Science & Technology Group at the Laboratory. Rogers has been an adjunct faculty member of the University of Illinois at Urbana, Champaign, since 2003, and a member of the editorial advisory board of the journal Global Change Biology since 2007.</p>

  69. Brookhaven Lecture

    "448th Brookhaven Lecture: 'New Chemistry for Artificial Photosynthesis: A Theoretical Perspective'"

    Presented by James Muckerman, Ph.D., Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, April 15, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    <p>Photosynthesis, which occurs in green plants, is a natural process in which light produces energy from water and carbon dioxide. Nowadays, scientists are working to replicate this process artificially, with the goal of creating clean, usable, renewable energy from the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide.</p> <p>During the 448th Brookhaven Lecture in Berkner Hall on Wednesday, April 15, at 4 p.m., Senior Chemist James Muckerman of the Chemistry Department will discuss "New Chemistry for Artificial Photosynthesis: A Theoretical Perspective." After reviewing natural photosynthesis, he will discuss how electrochemical systems driven by sunlight could carry out artificial photosynthesis and how these systems could then be turned into usable fuels that do not create pollution or undesirable by-products</p> <p>James Muckerman earned his Ph.D. in physical chemistry from the University of Wisconsin in 1969. He joined BNL's Chemistry Department as an associate chemist in 1969 and, moving up the ranks, was awarded tenure in 1975 and promoted to senior chemist in 1986. Within Chemistry, he served as assistant chair, 1988-90, and associate chair, 1990-93. Six years ago, Dr. Muckerman changed his research focus from gas-phase chemical physics to renewable energy, working to advance the theory behind a number of the U.S. Department of Energy's energy initiatives.</p> <p>To join the speaker for supper at an off-site restaurant after the lecture, make your reservation with Jean Petterson, or Ext. 4302.</p>

  70. Brookhaven Lecture

    "447th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources'"

    Presented by Masahiro Okamura, Ph.D., Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, March 4, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    Imagine if, by staying in your lane when driving on the expressway, you could help fight cancer or provide a new, clean energy source. You would clench the steering wheel with both hands and stay in your lane, right? Unlike driving on the expressway where you intentionally avoid hitting other cars, scientists sometimes work to steer particle beams into head-on collisions with other oncoming particle beams. However, the particles must be kept "in their lanes" for cleaner, more frequent collisions. Some scientists propose starting the whole process by using lasers to heat a fixed target as a way to get particles with higher charge, which are more steerable. These scientists believe the new methods could be used to develop particle beams for killing cancer cells or creating usable energy from fusion. Join Masahiro Okamura of Brookhaven's Collider-Accelerator Department for the 447th Brookhaven Lecture, titled "The Next Generation of Heavy Ion Sources." Okamura will explain how lasers can be used to create plasma, neutral mixtures of positive ions and negative electrons, from different materials, and how using this plasma leads to beams with higher charge states and currents. He will also discuss how this efficient, simpler method of producing particle beams might be used for cancer therapy, to develop new energy sources, or in synchrotrons. Okamura attended the Tokyo Institute of Technology, earning a bachelor of science in applied physics in 1990 and then a masters' degree and Ph.D. in nuclear engineering in 1992 and 1995 respectively. In 1995, he joined RIKEN's Radiation Laboratory as a contracted researcher and then became an Invited Scientist that same year. He worked as a special postdoctoral researcher at RIKEN from late 1995 until 1998, a contracted researcher until 1999, and a researcher from 1999 until 2006. He joined Brookhaven as a physi

  71. Brookhaven Lecture

    "446th Brookhaven Lecture: 'When Protein Crystallography Won't Show You the Membranes'"

    Presented by Lin Yang, National Synchrotron Light Source Department

    Wednesday, February 18, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    <p>High fever, stomach ache, coughing, sneezing, and fatigue — these are all painful signs that you may have caught the flu virus. But how does your body actually 'catch' a virus? Somewhere along the way, the virus infected your body by penetrating the membranes, or surfaces, of some of your body's cells. And then it spreads.</p> <p>Cell membranes are permeable surfaces made of proteins and lipids that allow vital materials to enter and exit cells. Many proteins and cell structures are studied at Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) using a procedure called protein crystallography. But they sometimes have unique characteristics that do not allow them to be easily studied using this widely adopted method. These characteristics make it difficult to understand the cell membrane structure and its ability to both welcome and refuse certain materials and viruses, such as the flu, on behalf of the cell's internal components.</p> <p>On Wednesday, February 18, join Lin Yang of the NSLS for the 446th Brookhaven Lecture, titled When Protein Crystallography Won't Show You the Membranes. All are invited to attend this free talk, which is open to the public and will be held in Berkner Hall at 4 p.m. Refreshments will be offered before and after the lecture.</p> <p>Yang will explain the protein crystallography procedure, the simple structure of the cell membrane, and the unusual characteristics of its proteins and lipids. He will also discuss a new, unique method being developed at the NSLS to study proteins and lipids within their native environment as they form the essential permeable surface of a cell membrane.</p>

  72. Brookhaven Lecture

    "445th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Do Gluons Carry Proton Spin? - Toward Resolving the Spin Crisis'"

    Presented by Alexander Bazilevsky, Physics Department

    Wednesday, January 21, 2009, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    Just as Earth and other planets spin within the solar system, subatomic quark and gluon particles spin within the protons and neutrons that spin within the nucleus of an atom. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory that describes interactions between subatomic particles and it has played a defining role in understanding the spin of protons and neutrons, which make up most of the visible mass in the universe. <p> Experiments first completed at CERN and furthered at several other laboratories around the world revealed that surprisingly, quarks and their partnering anti-quarks are responsible for only 20 to 30 percent of proton spin. These findings pointed to what would become known as "spin crisis." More recent experiments at BNL's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the first collider to smash protons that are "polarized," or made to spin in the same orientation, have helped to isolate the role of the gluon's spin within the spinning proton in hopes of resolving this crisis. <p> In his lecture, Bazilevsky will explain how data from RHIC's PHENIX and STAR detectors help to reveal the role of gluons in the proton's spin. Bazilevsky will also discuss long- and short-term plans to attain a deeper look into the proton spin structure, utilizing RHIC and its future upgrades.

  73. Brookhaven Lecture

    "444th Brookhaven Lecture: 'How It's Made — Polarized Proton Beam'"

    Presented by Anatoli Zelenski, Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    Tuesday, December 16, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    Experiments with polarized beams at RHIC will provide fundamental tests of QCD, and the electro-weak interaction reveal the spin structure of the proton. Polarization asymmetries and parity violation are the strong signatures for identification of the fundamental processes, which are otherwise inaccessible. Such experiments require the maximum available luminosity and therefore polarization must be obtained as an extra beam quality without sacrificing intensity. There are proposals to polarize the high-energy proton beam in the storage rings by the Stern-Gerlach effect or spin-filter techniques. But so far, the only practically available option is acceleration of the polarized beam produced in the source and taking care of polarization survival during acceleration and storage. Two major innovations — the "Siberian Snake" technique for polarization preservation during acceleration and high current polarized proton sources make spin physics with the high-energy polarized beams feasible. The RHIC is the first high-energy collider, where the "Siberian Snake" technique allowed of polarized proton beam acceleration up-to 250 GeV energy. </p><p> The RHIC unique Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source produces sufficient polarized beam intensity for complete saturation of the RHIC acceptance. This polarization technique is based on spin-transfer collisions between a proton or atomic hydrogen beam of a few keV beam energy and optically pumped alkali metal vapors. From the first proposal and feasibility studies to the operational source this development can be considered as example of successful unification of individual scientists ingenuity, international collaboration and modern technology application for creation of a new polarization technique, which allowed of two-to-three order of magnitude polarized beam intensity increase sufficient for loading the RHIC to its full capacity for polarization studies.

  74. Brookhaven Lecture

    "443rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos'"

    Presented by Aleksey Bolotnikov, Ph.D., Nonproliferation & National Security Department

    Wednesday, December 3, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    <p>Many radiation detectors are first developed for homeland security or industrial applications. Scientists, however, are continuously realizing new roles that these detectors can play in high-energy physics and astrophysics experiments.</p> <p>On Wednesday, December 3, join presenter Aleksey Bolotnikov, a physicist in the Nonproliferation and National Security Department (NNSD) and a co-inventor of the cadmium-zinc-telluride Frisch-ring (CdZnTe) detector, for the 443rd Brookhaven Lecture, entitled Gamma-Ray Detectors: From Homeland Security to the Cosmos.� In his lecture, Bolotnikov will highlight two primary radiation-detector technologies: CdZnTe detectors and fluid-Xeon (Xe) detectors.</p> <p>Bolotnikov earned a Ph.D. in physics at Moscow Engineering & Physics Institute in 1991 and joined NNSD as a Physicist in 2003. He received the Charles Hirsch Award from the Long Island chapter of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) for his work on the CdZnTe detector in 2005. He co-wrote a book, Noble Gas Detectors, published in 2006, and has co-authored 19 scientific papers. He and NNSD colleagues are currently involved in several projects related to CdZnTe and high-pressure-Xe detectors for homeland security applications.</p>

  75. Brookhaven Lecture

    "442nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Which Came First, the Eggshell or the Egg? Answering Riddles About Biomineralization'"

    Presented by Elaine DiMasi, Ph.D., National Synchrotron Light Source

    Wednesday, November 12, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    Some of the hardest and sturdiest materials are not made in the factory; they are made inside the bodies of animals through a process called biomineralization. Look no further than your refrigerator for one of the simplest products of this natural construction company: a chicken's eggshell. Made out of just about a half-millimeter of layered calcium carbonate and protein, eggshells might be thought of as fragile, but they also provide vital protection for the chick forming inside. <p> Biomineralization, the process by which organisms form materials such as bones, mollusk shells, and other structures, has captured the attention of scientists for years. The cells in an animal's body have special ways of controlling the sizes and shapes of these mineral compounds and incorporating organic materials into the mix, making many materials that are stronger, harder, and more wear-resistant than rocks. Finding a way to mimic the properties of these sturdy and naturally made materials could lead to the medical engineering of replacement bone, teeth, and cartilage, as well as the development of new electronic and industrial materials. <p> With collaborators at Stony Brook University, physicist Elaine DiMasi develops different biomineralization models, including a protein network that resembles real tissue. Then, the researchers use x-rays at the NSLS and a technique called shear modulation force microscopy to determine what biominerals look like and how they grow. In particular, DiMasi is interested in studying some of the earliest stages of biomineralization to find out what sets the process in motion.

  76. Brookhaven Lecture

    "441st Brookhaven Lecture: 'Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology'"

    Presented by Wally Mangel, Ph.D., Biology Department

    Wednesday, October 15, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    Vaccines are effective against viruses such as polio and measles, but vaccines against other important viruses, such as HIV and flu viruses, may be impossible to obtain. These viruses change their genetic makeup each time they replicate so that the immune system cannot recognize all their variations. Hence it is important to develop new antiviral agents that inhibit virus replication. To learn about the breakthrough work being done in the Biology Department to develop agents to inhibit viral replication, attend the 441st Brookhaven Lecture entitled Molecular Sleds and More: Novel Antiviral Agents via Single-Molecule Biology. To be presented by biochemist Walter Mangel, the lecture will take place on Wednesday, October 15, beginning at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall. During the lecture, Dr. Mangel will discuss his group's work with a model system, the human adenovirus, which causes, among other ailments, pink eye, blindness and obesity. Mangel's team has developed a promising drug candidate that works by inihibiting adenovirus proteinase, an enzyme necessary for viral replication. Walter Mangel, Ph.D., joined BNL's Biology Department in 1985. He has performed research at more than eight different beam lines at the National Synchrotron Light Source. He holds four patents, with three more pending. His research is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.

  77. Brookhaven Lecture

    "440th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Self-Control in Cocaine Addiction'"

    Presented by Rita Goldstein, Ph.D., Medical Department

    Wednesday, October 1, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    A drug-addicted person may set a goal to abstain from taking drugs, yet soon afterwards he or she will ignore all warnings or reprimands, take an excessive amount of a drug, and possibly go much farther, such as trade in a car, or another valuable possession, for a couple of cocaine hits. This disadvantageous decision-making and drug- seeking behavior may continue despite catastrophic personal consequences — for example, loss of job, health, or family — even when the drug is no longer perceived as pleasurable. A series of brain-mapping studies and neuropsychological tests conducted at BNL has shown that people addicted to cocaine have an impaired ability to process rewards and exercise control, in a way that is directly linked to changes in the responsiveness in their prefrontal cortex, a part of the brain essential for advantageously monitoring and controlling one's own behavior. To learn more about these pioneering studies, join medical scientist Rita Z. Goldstein of the Medical Department as she gives the 440th Brookhaven Lecture, on "Reward, Self-Control, and Free Will in Cocaine Addiction: Brain-Imaging Results." Goldstein will describe her research in this field, which was designed to test a theoretical model postulating that drug-addicted individuals disproportionately attribute value to their drug of choice — at the expense of other potentially but no-longer-rewarding stimuli and at the same time, experience decreased ability to inhibit their drug use.

  78. Brookhaven Lecture

    "439th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A Path Through 'No Man's Land': Inelastic X-ray Scattering at 0.1meV Resolution'"

    Presented by Young Cai, Ph.D., NSLS-II

    Wednesday, September 24, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & Stephen Musolino

    To study how sound propagates through liquids, how biological molecules flop and perform their functions, and how seismic waves transmit through the center of the earth, scientists have used an experimental technique called inelastic x-ray scattering. The technique is made possible by bright synchrotron light sources that can be adjusted, or "tuned" to a particular wavelength. Currently, the technique is limited by the number of active instruments in the world and their need for improved energy resolution. The new National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) to be built at BNL will provide the new impetus for the continuing growth of the technique in this country. In particular, one of the key goals of NSLS-II is to achieve 0.1meV energy resolution for inelastic x-ray scattering experiments, making it possible to explore a region of dynamical response, dubbed as "no man's land," which has never before been possible. Cai will review the current status of the inelastic x-ray scattering technique and research with examples taken from activities at BNL and elsewhere in the world. He will describe a new optical scheme that he and a team are investigating at NSLS-II, including research and development that promises to deliver the very high-resolution goal at only half the energy currently needed for much lower resolution results. As Cai will explain, this new capability is expected to provide the important link between viscous and elastic behaviors of disordered materials, and at the same time, create new opportunities for other areas of energy research for the future.

  79. Brookhaven Lecture

    "438th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Polar Nanoregions and Relaxors: How Nanoscale Disorder Leads to Enormous Electromechanical Response'"

    Presented by Guangyong Xu, Condensed Matter Physics & Materials Science Department

    Wednesday, July 16, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    Relaxors is the name given to a special class of materials called relaxor ferroelectrics. Xu will describe a series of experiments done by BNL researchers with collaborators from Stony Brook University, Johns Hopkins University, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, to discover why relaxors have such an exceptional electromechanical response. The explanation is dependent on "polar nanoregions" — tiny, nanometer-scale regions within the relaxors. The team established a link between polar nanoregions and the relaxors' ability to deform in response to an electric field, or to have a pulse of electric current induced by a deforming physical force. This understanding promises to lead to more improvements to relaxor materials for an even greater variety of applications.

  80. Brookhaven Lecture

    "437th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Strengthening IAEA Safeguards: Challenges Ahead'"

    Presented by Michael Rosenthal, Ph.D., Nonproliferation & National Security Department

    Wednesday, June 25, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), headquartered in Vienna, Austria, was established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to discourage its military use. The agency's success in halting nuclear proliferation and in enhancing nuclear safeguards and security have been recognized internationally, including with the 2005 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to the IAEA and its Director General.</p> <p>BNL has long had a role in the IAEA, by providing technical advice and assistance to its safeguards department. In fact, the IAEA's International Safeguards Project Office (ISPO) is headquartered at the Lab and is responsible for the management of U.S. programs supporting ISPO.</p> <p>In the 437th Brookhaven Lecture on Wednesday, June 25th, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, physicist Michael Rosenthal of the Energy, Environment & National Security Directorate will discuss the challenges facing the IAEA and ISPO in light of the world political situation and today's tight budgets, and BNL's role in finding and implementing solutions.</p> <p>Michael Rosenthal, Ph.D., joined BNL in May 2007, following a stint with the U.S. Department of State and two tours at the IAEA.</p> <p>Those who wish to join the lecturer for dinner following his talk at a restaurant off site may contact Susan Carlsen, or Ext. 7647.</p>

  81. Brookhaven Lecture

    "436th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A Grand Solar Plan: How Solar Power Can Cut Greenhouse Gases & End U.S. Dependence on Foreign Oil'"

    Presented by Vasilis Fthenakis, Ph.D., Energy Sciences & Technology Department

    Monday, April 21, 2008, 12 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson & George Goode

    <p>With oil now around $100 per barrel, solar power is no longer impractical, notes BNL's Vasilis Fthenakis, who, with two of his collaborators, authored "A Grand Solar Plan," the cover story of the January 2008 issue of Scientific American.</p> <p>As Dr. Fthenakis will detail in his special, open-to-the-public Earth Day lecture co-sponsored by the Brookhaven Lecture Committee and the Environment & Waste Management Services Division, the three solar experts propose covering thousands of square miles of the Southwest U.S. with photovoltaic arrays. These would convert sunlight into electricity, which would then be distributed across the U.S. ��" ending foreign-oil dependence, reducing the trade deficit, cutting air pollution, and slowing global climate change.</p> <p>Given oil's record price, the time for solar power as an affordable and technically implementable solution is now ��" if, according to Dr. Fthenakis, the U.S. makes the commitment and investment.</p>

  82. Brookhaven Lecture

    "435th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Crossing Interfacial Frontiers: Surface Chemical Dynamics at the Temporal and Spatial Limit'"

    Presented by Nicholas Camillone III, Ph.D., Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, April 16, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>Surface chemical reactions are ubiquitous in nature and industry: they have been used successfully to remove environmental pollutants, fabricate microelectronics, and produce vital chemicals such as fertilizer, fuel and food. But understanding the chemical dynamics of these reactions is limited, and the ability to study real-time surface chemistry is just being developed.</p> <p>The lecturer will discuss recent results of studies of the oxidation of carbon monoxide on the surface of palladium, which have resulted in new insights into molecule-molecule and molecule-surface interactions.</p> <p>In addition, he will describe a new project at the Center for Functional Nanomaterials that combines ultra-fast laser excitation with a new, state-of-the-art scanning tunneling microscope to probe electronic excitation and photo-induced chemistry at surfaces. It will have a resolution in both space and time that will allow the speaker and his colleagues to watch fast chemical processes at a molecule's eye-view.</p>

  83. Brookhaven Lecture

    "434th Brookhaven Lecture: 'RHIC: What We Have Learned So Far'"

    Presented by Edward O'Brien, Ph.D., Physics Department

    Wednesday, March 19, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>One of the world's premiere nuclear research facilities, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven Lab is just completing its eighth year of physics operation. During the past eight years, RHIC's primary physics program has emphasized the creation, observation and explanation of nuclear matter created at temperatures and densities that last existed in the universe some 13.7 billion years ago.</p> <p>RHIC was built to study the strong force, which holds quarks and gluons together within the nucleus of an atom, with the goal of observing a plasma of quarks and gluons freed from the atomic nucleus. The new state of matter that was created, however, was quite different.</p> <p>To find out "What We Have Learned So Far at RHIC," attend the 434th Brookhaven Lecture, to be presented by Senior Physicist Edward O'Brien of the Physics Department on Wednesday, March 19th, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall. In his talk, Dr. O'Brien will discuss what RHIC scientists expected versus what they discovered, and how this finding both challenges existing theory and provides an opportunity to understand the strong force better.</p> <p>With a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Illinois, Edward O'Brien camed to BNL in May 1987. Since 1992, he has been a member of the PHENIX experiment, one of RHIC's two large detectors, and, for the past seven years, the director of PHENIX operations.</p>

  84. Brookhaven Lecture

    "433rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Fueling Up with Hydrogen: New Approaches to Hydrogen Storage'"

    Presented by Jason Graetz, Ph.D., Energy Sciences & Technology Department

    Wednesday, February 20, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    Hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe, burns excellently and cleanly, with only pure water as a byproduct. NASA has used hydrogen as fuel for years in the space program. So, why not use hydrogen to fuel cars? The bottleneck of developing hydrogen-fueled vehicles has been identified: the greatest problem is storage. The conventional storage method, compressed hydrogen gas, requires a large tank volume, and the possibility of a tank rupture poses a significant safety risk. Another method, low temperature liquid storage, is expensive and impractical for most automotive applications. An alternative is to store the hydrogen in the solid state.<br /><br /> In his talk, Jason Graetz will describe the new approaches to hydrogen storage being studied by his group at BNL. These include using kinetically stabilized hydrides, bialkali alanates and reversible metal-organic hydrides. The researchers are also using novel synthesis approaches, state-of-the-art characterization and first principles modeling, all providing a better fundamental understanding of these interesting and useful new materials.

  85. Brookhaven Lecture

    "432nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'At the Cutting Edge of Bright Beams: The NSLS Source Development Lab'"

    Presented by James B. Murphy, Ph.D., National Synchrotron Light Source Department

    Thursday, January 24, 2008, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>Inspired by the discoveries with synchrotron light at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) and similar facilities around the world, researchers are looking for more brilliant beams of light. To develop this next-generation of light sources, accelerator physicists at the NSLS Source Development Laboratory (SDL) make use of a magnesium photocathode irradiated by ultraviolet laser light to produce electron beams of unprecedented brightness.</p> <p>To learn more about this forefront research, join Dr. James B. Murphy, NSLS Deputy Chairman for Accelerators & Operations, at 4 p.m. on Thursday, January 24, in Berkner Hall, as he gives the 432nd Brookhaven Lecture, entitled At the Cutting Edge of Bright Beams: The NSLS Source Development Laboratory. All are welcome to this free, open-to-the public lecture, which is, please note, on a Thursday, not the usual Wednesday.</p> <p>As Murphy will describe in his talk, he and fellow researchers have developed various techniques to catch molecules and atoms in action. In one recent study, the researchers used a laser to control the pulse duration of light from a free-electron laser (FEL), a type of light source with a potential peak brightness up to one billion times higher than that of ordinary synchrotron light. In another technique, Murphy and his colleagues generated extremely short pulses of terahertz radiation that are the highest intensity of their type ever produced.</p> <p>James B. Murphy earned his Ph.D. in physics from Dartmouth College in 1982. He joined the Accelerator Physics Group at the NSLS in August 1983, as a post-doc to work on free electron lasers (FELs) and laser acceleration, and is now a tenured member of the NSLS staff.</p> <p>To lunch with the lecturer at an off-site restaurant on Friday, January 25, please make reservations with Kathleen Loverro, Ext. 7188.</p>

  86. Brookhaven Lecture

    "431st Brookhaven Lecture: 'Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider'"

    Presented by Robert P. Crease, Ph.D., Department of Philosophy, Stony Brook University

    Wednesday, December 12, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>As part of the celebration of Brookhaven Lab's 60th anniversary, Robert P. Crease, the Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University and BNL's historian, will present the second of two talks on the Lab's history on Wednesday, December 12.</p> <p>In "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," Dr. Crease will focus on the creation of the world's most powerful colliding accelerator for nuclear physics.</p> <p>Known as RHIC, the collider, as Dr. Crease will recount, was formally proposed in 1984, received initial construction funding from the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991, and started operating in 2000. In 2005, the discovery at RHIC of the world's most perfect liquid, a state of matter that last existed just moments after the Big Bang, was announced, and, since then, this perfect liquid of quarks and gluons has been subject of intense study.</p> <p>After earning a Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1987, Dr. Robert Crease joined the SBU faculty, and, in 1989, he began working part time as BNL's historian. Among his numerous publications on the history and philosophy of science is <i>Making Physics: A History of Brookhaven National Laboratory, 1946-1972</i> (University of Chicago Press, 1999). Currently, Dr. Crease is working on a sequel, covering the next 25 years of Lab history.</p>

  87. Brookhaven Lecture

    "430th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Brighter Beams for Better Physics: Stochastic Cooling at RHIC'"

    Presented by Mike Blaskiewicz, Ph.D., Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, December 5, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven Lab, nuclei of gold atoms are collided with enough force to recreate on a tiny scale the hot, dense conditions that existed about one-hundredth of a second after the Big Bang. By packing so much energy into a small area, these collisions allow physicists to study fundamental constituents of matter — quarks and gluons — in a state of matter that last existed some 14 billion years ago.</p> <p>RHIC's current collision rate — its luminosity — is thousands of collisions per second. But RHIC physicists want more because the more collisions, the more data they can take and the more analysis they can do toward understanding the forces causing these subatomic particles to interact and coalesce to form the universe as it is today.</p> <p>One approach to achieving higher collision rates is called stochastic cooling, which is an accelerator beam-feedback technique to keep an accelerator's particle beam size as small as possible. Although this approach has been used in specialized, low-energy accelerators, it has never been made to work at high energy of with tightly bunched beams such as RHIC's — until now.</p> <p>After defining stochastic cooling concepts and techniques, the lecturer will describe how the stochastic cooling system that began operating at RHIC last year has significantly reduced the energy spread of beams. And he will talk about plans to build upon this success by installing another system by next fall.</p> <p>Mike Blaskiewicz earned his B.S. in physics from the University of Connecticut in 1983 and his Ph.D. in physics from Cornell University in 1990. He joined BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department in 1991, where he works on stochastic cooling, radio-frequency systems, coherent instabilities, and electron-cloud effects.</p> <p>To

  88. Brookhaven Lecture

    "429th Brookhaven Lecture: 'How Big Science Came to Long Island: the Birth of Brookhaven Lab'"

    Presented by Robert P. Crease, Ph.D., Department of Philosophy, Stony Brook University

    Wednesday, October 31, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    Robert P. Crease, historian for the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory and Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University, will give two talks on the Laboratory's history in Brookhaven Lab's Berkner Hall at 4 p.m. on October 31 and December 12. Open to the public free of charge, the talks will be held to celebrate the Laboratory's 60th anniversary. Visitors to the Laboratory age 16 and over must bring a photo ID. The two talks by Crease are part of the Brookhaven Lecture Series, numbered 429 and 431, respectively. Crease's October 31 talk, titled "How Big Science Came to Long Island: The Birth of Brookhaven Lab," will cover the founding of the Laboratory soon after World War II as a peacetime facility to construct and maintain basic research facilities, such as nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, that were too large for single institutions to build and operate. He will discuss the key figures involved in starting the Laboratory, including Nobel laureates I.I. Rabi and Norman Ramsey, as well as Donald Dexter Van Slyke, one of the most renowned medical researchers in American history. Crease also will focus on the many problems that had to be overcome in creating the Laboratory and designing its first big machines, as well as the evolving relations of the Laboratory with the surrounding Long Island community and news media. Throughout his talk, Crease will tell fascinating stories about Brookhaven's scientists and their research. Crease's December 12 talk, titled "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," will focus on the world's most powerful nuclear physics facility, known as RHIC. It was formally proposed in 1984, received funding from the Department of Energy in 1991, and started operating in 2000. In 2005, physicists at RHIC discovered a "perfect"

  89. Brookhaven Lecture

    "428th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Lighthouses, Light Sources and Kinoform Hard X-Ray Optics'"

    Presented by Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt, Ph.D., National Synchrotron Light Source Department

    Wednesday, October 24, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <p>BNL's planned National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is designed to be a world-leading light source facility, promising advances in nanoscience, energy, biology, and materials research. In designing and developing this new facility, breakthrough research is a must to ensure that appropriate tools are available for the new science that will be studied.</p> <p>At BNL, a team of researchers has overcome a major x-ray focusing obstacle to allow the study of molecules, atoms, and advanced materials at the nanoscale, which is on the order of billionths of a meter. Their innovative method uses a type of refractive lens called a kinoform lens —similar to the kind found in lighthouses — in order to focus the x-rays down to the extremely small spots needed for a sharp image at small dimensions.</p> <p>To learn about this research, join NSLS Physicist Kenneth Evans-Lutterodt in Berkner Hall, at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, October 24, as he gives the 428th Brookhaven Lecture entitled "Lighthouses, Light Sources and Kinoform Hard X-Ray Optics."</p> <p>The goal for Evans-Lutterodt and his colleagues is to enable the probing of materials and molecules with just one-nanometer resolution, which is a capability needed to study the intricate mechanisms of chemical and biological systems. However, to do that, they need to exceed a limit known as the critical angle on the ability to focus high-energy, or hard, x-rays. Evans-Lutterodt will explain how this limit was exceeded at the NSLS and how the breakthrough could benefit future science at NSLS-II.</p> <p>Evans-Lutterodt received his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. After working at Bell Laboratories, he joined BNL in 2003.</p>

  90. Brookhaven Lecture

    "427th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Overeating Behavior: Is It Similar to Drug Addiction?'"

    Presented by Gene-Jack Wang, M.D., Medical Department

    Wednesday, September 26, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Brant Johnson and Fulvia Pilat

    <html><p>The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans.</p> <p>During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits.</p> <p>As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.</p></html>

  91. Brookhaven Lecture

    "426th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Pesky Neutrino'"

    Presented by David Jaffe, Physics Department

    Wednesday, June 27, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    The speaker will describe the past, present and possible future of the "pesky" neutrino, the existence of which was first hypothesized in 1930 to rescue energy conservation in the radioactive beta decay of nuclei. Although difficult to detect, the neutrino has played an essential role in the understanding of the subatomic world of weak interactions. Recent evidence that neutrinos are massive is the only experimental evidence in particle physics that is inconsistent with the Standard Model. There is the possibility that the neutrino will shed light on the origin of fermion mass and the matter-antimatter asymmetry of the universe.

  92. Brookhaven Lecture

    "425th Brookhaven Lecture: 'A Hydrogen Economy: Opportunities & Challenges'"

    Presented by Paul Friley, Energy Sciences & Technology Department

    Wednesday, May 16, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    The long-term goal of many nations, a hydrogen economy may confer energy security and environmental and economic benefits. However, the transition from the present petroleum-based economy to one based on the use of hydrogen for energy involves uncertainties, such as the develop of efficient fuel cell technology, the resolution of problems in hydrogen production and distribution, and the response of petroleum markets. This talk will review BNL's look at the opportunities and challenges that a transition to a hydrogen economy will face and a BNL study of the impact of hydrogen production on U.S. energy markets. As the lecturer will explain, both the hydrogen-economy analysis and the hydrogen-production study rely upon the U.S. MARKAL model which was developed at Brookhaven. Widely used around the world, the MARKAL model is an integrated energy, economic and environmental framework for simulating the impact of energy technology — and the transition from one dominant technology to another.

  93. Brookhaven Lecture

    "424th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Radiological Threat Reduction: Dealing With Dirty Bombs'"

    Presented by Stephen Musolino, Nonproliferation & National Security Department

    Wednesday, April 18, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    BNL has been involved in projects to reduce the threat of terrorist attacks involving radioactive materials and to mitigate the consequences should one occur. This talk will review three such projects. One program evaluates the security of industrial sources, such as those used in medicine and industry, and funds additional security measures to detect unauthorized access, delay removal of those sources, and initiate a response by local security forces. The second project is work with Interpol, training front-line police officers of countries along traditional smuggling routes on how to use radiation detectors. The last project to be discussed will be the BNL and SNL-developed guidance that first responders, such as police, fire or EMS, can use within the first 48 hours after the detonation of a radiological device.

  94. Brookhaven Lecture

    "423rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'RHIC: the World's First High-Energy, Polarized-Proton Collider'"

    Presented by Mei Bai, Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, March 28, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at BNL has been colliding polarized proton at a beam energy of 100 billion electron volts (GeV) since 2001. In addition to reporting upon the progress of RHIC polarized-proton program, this talk will focus upon the mechanisms that cause the beam to depolarize and the strategies developed to overcome this. As the world first polarized-proton collider, RHIC is designed to collide polarized protons up to an energy of 250 GeV, thereby providing an unique opportunity to measure the contribution made by the gluon to a proton's spin and to study the spin structure of proton. Unlike other high-energy proton colliders, however, the challenge for RHIC is to overcome the mechanisms that cause partial or total loss of beam polarization, which is due to the interaction of the spin vector with the magnetic fields. In RHIC, two Siberian snakes have been used to avoid these spin depolarizing resonances, which are driven by vertical closed-orbit distortion and vertical betatron oscillations. As a result, polarized-proton beams have been accelerated to 100 GeV without polarization loss, although depolarization has been observed during acceleration from 100 GeV to 205 GeV.

  95. Brookhaven Lecture

    "422nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Aerosols, Clouds and Climate — From Micro to Macro'"

    Presented by Yangang Liu, Environmental Sciences Department

    Wednesday, February 21, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    Including aerosols, clouds and precipitation, particles in the atmosphere interact with one another and affect the Earth�s climate through a myriad of complex processes acting over a wide range of scales — from the sub-micrometer to the global scale of over 10,000 kilometers. Looking at these phenomena from microscopic through macroscopic points of view, this lecture will examine aerosols-clouds-climate interactions, address the indirect impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on the Earth�s climate by altering properties of cloud and precipitation, and explore important feedback mechanisms helping to shape the Earth�s climate.

  96. Brookhaven Lecture

    "421st Brookhaven Lecture: 'Practice of Color in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions'"

    Presented by Zhangbu Xu, Physics Department

    Wednesday, January 17, 2007, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    As the world's newest and largest operating accelerator for nuclear physics research, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven Lab has been smashing beams of gold ions together since 2000, to duplicate on the atomic level conditons that last existed after the Big Bang. In 2005, RHIC's four teams of physicists announced that, contrary to expectation, what existed a few microseconds after the Big Bang is not a plasma of weakly interacting quarks and gluons � it is a liquid of strongly interacting quarks and gluons. This Brookhaven lecture will explore the properties of this matter, in terms of measurements of particle abundance, temperature flow, flavor production and jet quenching, and the relationship to the fundamental properties of Quantum Chromodynamics. After reviewing ongoing measurements and results presented at Quark Matter 2006 in November, the speaker will describe detector upgrades that will advance the understanding of the QCD matter created at RHIC.

  97. Brookhaven Lecture

    "420th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Physics and Neuroscience: Common Ground Between Disparate Fields'"

    Presented by Paul Vaska, Medical Department

    Wednesday, December 20, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    At Brookhaven, methods of experimental physics are being applied to enhance the understanding of the human brain, with the ultimate goal of improving treatments for a variety of disorders ranging from addiction to obesity. We have developed unique strategies to image the brain non-invasively, in human beings and animal models of human brain function. However, anesthesia, which is used in the study of animal models, has significant unintended consequences on brain function. To avoid anesthesia-induced changes in brain function, the speaker and colleages have designed and built the smallest, fully functional brain scanner of its type in the world. It is so small that it can be used to image the brain of a rat while the animal is awake and moving. The significance of this device as well as other related instruments under development at Brookhaven will be discussed.

  98. Brookhaven Lecture

    "419th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Past 20 Years in Neutrino Science: Where Have We Been? Where Do We Go From Here?'"

    Presented by Richard Hahn, Chemistry Department

    Wednesday, November 15, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia PIlat and Brant Johnson

    In 1986-87, when the speaker first became involved in neutrino studies at BNL, the GALLEX collaboration was forming and the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory was being built in Italy. The key scientific questions at that time were: First, is the solar neutrino deficit claimed by BNL's Ray Davis et al. real? And, second, if yes, then what is the explanation? At that time, only two neutrino experiments were operating: Ray�s chlorine-37 radiochemical neutrino detector in the U.S., and the real-time detector, Kamiokande, in Japan. Since then, several new experiments — GALLEX, SAGE, Super-Kamiokande, SNO (Sudbury Neutrino Observatory), and KamLAND — have obtained significant results that have greatly expanded our understanding of neutrino physics. SNO plus Super-Kamiokande solved the long-standing solar neutrino problem — and Ray Davis won the Nobel Prize. So, people in the neutrino field say that we have left the era of discovery and have recently entered an era of precision �New Physics," during which we will learn about the detailed properties of neutrinos, such as their masses and their mixing angles. In this talk, the speaker will review highlights of the last 20 years and discuss a few ideas for new precision neutrino experiments, some of which will involve collaborative efforts of his group in the Chemistry Department and colleagues in the Physics Department.

  99. Brookhaven Lecture

    "418th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Bright Photon Beams: Developing New Light Sources'"

    Presented by Timur Shaftan, National Synchrotron Light Source Department

    Wednesday, October 18, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    The NSLS-II project will establish a third-generation light source at Brookhaven Lab, increasing beam-line brightness by 10,000. Achieving and maintaining this will involve tightly focusing the electron beam, providing the most efficient insertion devices, and achieving and maintaining a high electron current. In this talk, the various sub-systems of NSLS-II will be reviewed, and the requirements and key elements of their design will be discussed. In addition, the a small prototype of a light source of a different kind that was developed by the NSLS will also be discussed. It is a short-wavelength free electron laser (FEL), which is a promising way to realize diffraction-limited brightness combined with femtosecond-short pulses. At BNL, a deep ultraviolet FEL was successfully commissioned in 2001, and, soon thereafter, lasing in the UV and DUV was achieved. In this talk, the steps taken in FEL commissioning, the characterization of the FEL output, new ideas about manipulating it, and the discovery of a new phenomenon in the physics of bright electron beams will all be reviewed.

  100. Brookhaven Lecture

    "417th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Imaging Protein Machines That Break Down Proteins'"

    Presented by Huilin Li, Biology Department

    Wednesday, September 20, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Hosted by: Fulvia Pilat and Brant Johnson

    Proteins that cleave other proteins using a molecule of water, protease complexes are exquisite macromolecular machines involved in a multitude of physiological and cellular reactions. We have been studying two recently identified protease complexes using electron cryo-microscopy and X-ray crystallography. The first is a proteasome that resides in the cytoplasm of the Mycobacterial tuberculosis and is required for Tb resistance to destruction by human macrophages. The second is a gamma-secretase complex embedded in the cellular membrane of human neurons. Gamma-secretase produces Alzheimer�s disease-causing A-beta peptides. Our structural studies shed light into the inner workings of these multi-protein assemblies, and they reveal a surprisingly common strategy for controlled proteolysis employed by the two drastically different machines. Further research will facilitate rational design of drugs for treating Tb infection and Alzheimer�s disease.

  101. Brookhaven Lecture

    "416th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Molecular Design of a Metal Transporter'"

    Presented by Dax Fu, Biology Dept.

    Wednesday, June 21, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  102. Brookhaven Lecture

    "415th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Atomic-Layer Engineering of Cuprate Superconductors'"

    Presented by Ivan Bo�ović, Materials Science Dept.

    Wednesday, May 17, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  103. Brookhaven Lecture

    "414th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Of Boys and Girls and Bumps on the Head'"

    Presented by Anat Biegon, Medical Dept.

    Wednesday, April 19, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    If you are a young man driving your wife and her parents, be very careful. If you are involved in a serious car accident, you and your mother-in-law are most likely to survive. This �warning� is one conclusion of Anat Biegon�s upcoming 414th Brookhaven Lecture, entitled �Of Boys and Girls and Bumps on the Head.� Joanna Fowler of the Chemistry Department, Director of BNL�s Translational Neuroimaging Center, will introduce the lecturer. Biegon, a senior medical scientist in the Medical Department, will detail how research has refined scientists� view of gender differences in the prevalence and outcome of diseases affecting the brain. Although it has been well documented that gender affects the prevalence of disorders such as depression and Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, recent head injury trials suggest that both age and sex affect the likelihood and degree of recovery from injuries to the brain. While girls are more likely to die following a traumatic brain injury than boys, that result is reversed after the age of 50, when men die twice as often. Everyone is welcome to join Biegon on April 19 at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall to learn more about this exciting new field of research and what it has revealed about the roles of age and gender in repairing brain injuries.

  104. Brookhaven Lecture

    "413th Brookhaven Lecture: 'The Quest for High Luminosity in Hadron Colliders'"

    Presented by Wolfram Fischer, Collider-Accelerator Dept.

    Wednesday, March 15, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    In 1909, by bombarding a gold foil with alpha particles from a radioactive source, Ernest Rutherford and coworkers learned that the atom is made of a nucleus surrounded by an electron cloud. Ever since, scientists have been probing deeper and deeper into the structure of matter using the same technique. With increasingly powerful machines, they accelerate beams of particles to higher and higher energies, to penetrate more forcefully into the matter being investigated and reveal more about the contents and behavior of the unknown particle world. To achieve the highest collision energies, projectile particles must be as heavy as possible, and collide not with a fixed target but another beam traveling in the opposite direction. These experiments are done in machines called hadron colliders, which are some of the largest and most complex research tools in science. Five such machines have been built and operated, with Brookhaven�s Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) currently the record holder for the total collision energy. One more such machine is under construction. Colliders have two vital performance parameters on which their success depends: one is their collision energy, and the other, the number of particle collisions they can produce, which is proportional to a quantity known as the luminosity. One of the tremendous achievements in the world�s latest collider, RHIC, is the amazing luminosity that it produces in addition to its high energy. To learn about the performance evolution of these colliders and the way almost insurmountable difficulties can be overcome, especially in RHIC, join Wolfram Fischer, a physicist in the Collider-Accelerator (C-A) Department, who will give the next Brookhaven Lecture, on �The Quest for High Luminosity in Hadron Colliders.� The talk will be held in Berkner Hall at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, March 15, and the speaker will be introduced by C-A Chair Derek Lowenstein.

  105. Brookhaven Lecture

    "412th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: New Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism'"

    Presented by Peter Vanier, NNS

    Wednesday, February 15, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Acts of terrorism have become almost daily occurrences in the international news. Yet one of the most feared types of terrorism � nuclear terrorism � has not yet happened. One important way of preventing nuclear terrorism is to safeguard nuclear materials, and many people worldwide work continuously to achieve that goal. A second, vital defense is being developed: greatly improved methods of detecting material that a nuclear terrorist would need so that timely discovery of the material could become more probable. Special nuclear materials can emit neutrons, either spontaneously or when excited by a source of high-energy gamma rays, such as an electron accelerator. Traditional neutron detectors can sense these neutrons, but not the direction from which the neutrons come, or their energy. The odds against finding smuggled nuclear materials using conventional detectors are great. However, innovative designs of detectors are producing images that show the locations and even the shapes of man-made neutron sources, which stand out against the uniform background produced by cosmic rays. With the new detectors, finding needles in haystacks � or smuggled nuclear materials in a huge container among thousands of others in a busy port � suddenly becomes possible. To learn about these new detectors from a specialist who has spent several years developing these technologies, all are invited to attend the 412th Brookhaven Lecture, �Advanced Neutron Detection Methods: New Tools for Countering Nuclear Terrorism,� to be given by Peter Vanier of the Nonproliferation & National Security Department (NNS). The lecture will be held at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, February 15, in Berkner Hall, and Vanier will be introduced by NNS Chair Joseph Indusi. Vanier will discuss how, with BNL�s Instrumentation Division and other colleagues from the Lab, other national laboratories, and elsewhere, the capabilities of these new detectors are now being t

  106. Brookhaven Lecture

    "411th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Shining Light on the Cause of Alzheimer's Disease'"

    Presented by Lisa Miller, NSLS

    Wednesday, January 18, 2006, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Alzheimer�s disease is a progressive brain disorder that gradually destroys a person�s memory and ability to learn, reason, communicate and carry out daily activities. An estimated 4.5 million Americans have it, a number that is expected to triple over the next 50 years. Today, one in ten people aged 65 and half of people over 85 are affected. The cause of Alzheimer�s disease is thought to involve the formation of �plaques� � tiny aggregates of a naturally occurring, but misfolded or misshapen protein � in the brain. Recently, the formation of these plaques has been associated with the binding of metal ions such as iron, copper, and zinc. Yet the function of these metal ions and the misfolded proteins in the disease process is not well understood. Now, synchrotron infrared and x-ray microscopes are used to image the protein structure and metal content in the Alzheimer�s-affected brain tissue, providing a better understanding of how the disease occurs and potential ways of preventing it in the future. To learn about this research at BNL, join biophysical chemist Lisa Miller of the National Synchrotron Light Source Department (NSLS) as she gives the 411th Brookhaven Lecture, on �Shining Light on the Cause of Alzheimer�s Disease,� at 4 p.m. on Wednesday, January 18, in Berkner Hall. Miller will be introduced by Chi-Chang Kao, NSLS Interim Chair.

  107. Brookhaven Lecture

    "410th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Hotter, denser, faster, smaller...and nearly-perfect: what's the matter at RHIC?'"

    Presented by Peter Steinberg, Chemistry Dept.

    Wednesday, December 21, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    <p>The collisions of two beams of heavy-ion particles � atoms stripped of their electrons � speeding around BNL�s immense Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have long been expected to create a �quark-gluon plasma� in which the quarks and gluons that make up the protons and neutrons in the ions would move freely in a plasma-like system. But the final particles, detectable in the four experiments placed around the RHIC ring, tend to hide information about the earlier, hotter stage. So it is a challenge to elucidate the nature of the primordial system.</p> <p>What surprised scientists, however, was how strongly the quarks and gluons seemed to interact during the collision. This strong interaction makes the system produced at RHIC behave almost like a perfect fluid, one in which the hot matter formed shows a high degree of collectivity among the particles, rather than a gas, in which individual molecules move about randomly.</p> <p>Evidence from the four RHIC detectors has shown that the system formed at RHIC is potentially the most perfect fluid found in nature, at least since a few microseconds after the Big Bang, a state which RHIC was built to re-create. This result is all the more amazing since the system is so small, the collisions forming over distances 100 times smaller than a proton, and forms so quickly, in times on the order of a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a second (10-24 seconds). It was even interesting enough to the wider physics community to warrant first place in the American Institute of Physics� year-end review of top physics stories.</p> <p>Steinberg joined BNL in 1999. He received his undergraduate degree in political science from Yale University in 1992, and his Ph.D. in physics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1998, and was also a postdoc at Columbia University.</p>

  108. Brookhaven Lecture

    "409th Brookhaven Lecture: '100 years of Photoemission from Albert Einstein to the Quantum World'"

    Presented by Peter Johnson, Physics Dept.

    Wednesday, November 16, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  109. Brookhaven Lecture

    "408th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Optical Stochastic Cooling at RHIC'"

    Presented by Vitaly Yakimenko, Physics Dept.

    Wednesday, October 19, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  110. Brookhaven Lecture

    "407th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Photovoltaics and the Environment'"

    Presented by Vasilis Fthenakis, Environmental Sciences

    Wednesday, September 21, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Over the past five years, solar energy usage has grown by about 43 percent a year, giving rise to a billion-dollar industry in photovoltaics (PV) or getting electricity from light. The word photovoltaics combines the Greek phos, or light, with the �volt� of electricity. PV technologies have distinct environmental advantages over conventional power technologies, such as: no noise, no emissions, no need for fuel and power lines. Compared to burning coal, a gigawatt-hour of PV-generated electricity would prevent the release of about 1,000 tons of carbon dioxide, eight of sulfur dioxide, four of nitrogen oxides, and 0.4 tons of particulates. However, manufacturing the solar cells that transform light to electricity requires the use of some toxic and flammable substances. Addressing the environmental, health, and safety concerns of the PV industry to minimize risk while ensuring economic viability and public support is the work of the National Photovoltaic Environmental Health, & Safety Assistance Center at BNL.

  111. Brookhaven Lecture

    "406th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Advanced Oil Combustion Phenomena: A New Look at an Old Flame'"

    Presented by Thomas Butcher, ES&T

    Wednesday, July 20, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  112. Brookhaven Lecture

    "405th Brookhaven Lecture: 'E-RHIC—Future Electron-Ion Collider at BNL'"

    Presented by Vadim Ptitsyn, Collider-Accelerator Department

    Wednesday, June 22, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

  113. Brookhaven Lecture

    "404th Brookhaven Lecture: 'Nanovision: Nanotubes, Nanowires and Nanoparticles'"

    Presented by Stanislaus Wong, Materials Science

    Wednesday, May 18, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    A very few years ago, the field of nanoscience—the science of materials at the nanometer (nm), or billionth-of-a-meter scale—was relatively unexplored. Today, it is one of the hottest areas of research, with new techniques and new tools to probe the structure and function of materials at the atomic and molecular level. Once scientists had found that, at this ultra-small scale, the chemical and physical properties of materials often differ from the properties they have in bulk form, the rush was on: first to determine the new structural and chemical characteristics of each material, then, to try and use this knowledge to improve products and processes needed in everyday life. Just some of the possible benefits from nanotechnology, for example, are better electronics, stronger and lighter materials, and more efficient catalysts to speed up chemical processes. To talk about some of these exciting discoveries and how he and his colleagues work on them at the Lab, Stanislaus Wong of BNL's Materials Science Department and Stony Brook University (SBU) will talk on Nanovision: Nanotubes, Nanowires, and Nanoparticles, in the 404th Brookhaven Lecture, on Wednesday, May 18. The lecture will be given in Berkner Hall at 4 p.m., and the lecturer will be introduced by Materials Science Chair Jim Misewich. Wong's "nanovision," as he will explain, emerges from how the study of carbon and non-carbon forms of materials at the nanoscale reveals different morphological structures: some are tiny tubes, others are like wires, and others are in particle form. These minute nanostructures yield different properties as they are treated in different ways.

  114. Brookhaven Lecture

    "403rd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Probing the Matter Created at RHIC'"

    Presented by Saskia Mioduszewski, Physics

    Wednesday, April 20, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Physicists from around the world are using the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) to explore some of nature�s most basic and intriguing ingredients and phenomena. At RHIC, two beams of gold ions (atoms that have had their electrons stripped off) travel at nearly the speed of light � what Einstein called relativistic speeds � in opposite directions around RHIC�s 2.4-mile, two-lane �racetrack.� At six intersections, the lanes cross and ions collide at such high speeds that fascinating things happen. It is the conditions that are created as a result of these collisions � conditions that exist for only a brief period (approximately 10-22 seconds) following each collision � that physicists are interested in studying. To learn how and why researchers analyze these collisions, join Saskia Mioduszewski, an associate scientist in the Physics Department, on Wednesday, April 20, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, where she will present the 403rd Brookhaven Lecture, �Probing the Matter Created at RHIC.� Mioduszewski will be introduced by Sally Dawson, Acting Chair of the Physics Department. In her talk, Mioduszewski will discuss the results from RHIC�s experimental collaborations and how researchers hope to create a form of matter in which the basic building blocks of matter � quarks and gluons � interact freely in what is called quark-gluon plasma. Researchers believe that quark-gluon plasma existed at the birth of the early universe. As Mioduszewski will explain, characterizing the state of matter produced in the collisions is challenging because of its very short duration.�She will describe the sophisticated probes that researchers have developed to meet this challenge. Mioduszewski received B.S. degrees in physics and mathematics from North Carolina State University in 1994, and a Ph.D. in nuclear physics from the University of Tennessee in 1999.

  115. Brookhaven Lecture

    "402nd Brookhaven Lecture: 'Genetically Modified Plants: What's the Fuss?'"

    Presented by Ben Burr, Biology Department

    Wednesday, March 16, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Genetic transformation is a relatively new and powerful tool used by plant breeders and for basic research. Benefits of gene transformation include resistance to pests and herbicides, which has led to a reduction in pesticide application and soil erosion. Genetically modified plants are used on a massive scale in agriculture in the U.S. and other countries, in part because they are less expensive and more convenient to work with. Yet, despite the benefits, genetic transformation remains a controversial subject and groups in the U.S. and abroad contest its practice. To gain insight into this contentious debate, join Ben Burr, a senior geneticist in the Biology Department, on Wednesday, March 16, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall, where he will present the 402nd Brookhaven Lecture, �Genetically Modified Plants: What�s the Fuss?�` According to Burr, to appreciate this controversy fully, it is important to understand how genes work, how they are organized in plant genomes, and how they are inherited. Moreover, the use of gene-transfer technology should be regarded in light of how and why plants are improved. The scope of changes that scientists have selected in plants to make them more productive should also be considered. In fact, recent discoveries about the genes that have been selected and the nature of plant genomes are some of the most interesting aspects of this controversy, says Burr. As he will explain, the risks presented by conventional plant improvement and gene-transfer technology have been reviewed by the National Academy of Sciences, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, and the Food & Drug Administration. These groups have concluded that gene-transfer technology poses no risk or danger above that present in conventional plant breeding. Furthermore, the use of transgenic organisms, including those used for research at BNL, is closely regulated in the U.S.

  116. Brookhaven Lecture

    "401st Brookhaven Lecture: 'Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons — Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures'"

    Presented by Marcelo Vasquez, Medical Department

    Wednesday, February 16, 2005, 4 pm
    Berkner Hall Auditorium

    Since astronauts hope to spend more time in space, they will receive more exposure to ionizing radiation, a stream of particles that, when passing through a body, has enough energy to damage the components of living cells and tissues. Ionizing radiation may cause changes in cells� ability to carry out repair, reproduction and cross-talk with other cells. This may lead to mutations, which, in turn, may result in tumors, cancer, genetic defects in offspring, or neurodegeneration. A $34-million facility � BNL�s NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) � built in a cooperative effort by NASA and DOE, is one of the few places in the world that can simulate the harsh space radiation environment. At this facility, scientists from some several institutions in the U.S. and abroad will learn about the possible risks to human beings exposed to space radiation. Although the spacecraft itself somewhat reduces radiation exposure, it does not completely shield astronauts from galactic cosmic rays, which are highly energetic heavy ions, or from solar particles, which are primarily energetic protons. Within the NSRL target room, Lab researchers and other NASA-sponsored scientists irradiate a variety of biological specimens, tissues, and cells to study the effects that ion beams have on cells and animals. To learn more about this research, join Marcelo Vazquez, a scientist in the Medical Department, on Tuesday, February 15, at 4 p.m. in Berkner Hall where he will present the 401st Brookhaven Lecture, �Hazards of the Deep: Killing the Dragons � Neurobiological Consequences of Space Radiation Exposures.� Vazquez will be introduced by Medical Department Chair Helene Benveniste. In his talk, Vazquez will discuss his research projects and how scientists from NASA, national laboratories, and other institutions worldwide have expanded the understanding of the link between ionizing radiation and neurodegeneration.