General Lab Information

Career Information

  • International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
    Located in Vienna, Austria, the IAEA is the international organization charged with nuclear safeguards verification. Some of instructors of the course have worked with the IAEA in varying capacities.
  • U.S. Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE NNSA)
    Located in Washington, D.C., DOE NNSA supports many programs that foster nuclear nonproliferation worldwide, giving policy direction and budgetary support. NNSA's Office of Nonproliferation & International Security is the sponsor of the course.
  • The U.S. Department of State, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Defense, and Agencies of the Intelligence Community all play a role in nuclear nonproliferation.
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security
    DHS has programs to improve the capability of the U.S. to detect and report unauthorized attempts to use nuclear or radiological material against the U.S.
  • Universities
    Many universities with nuclear engineering departments, with graduate programs in international relations, or with specialized institutes focusing on the interaction of science and public policy have professors who follow nonproliferation and safeguards issues and contribute to policy formulation and debate.
  • Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
    Located primarily in Washington, D.C., several NGOs specialize in nonproliferation and safeguards or have staff members who work in these areas. Notable are the Nuclear Threat Initiative, the Arms Control Association, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Additional Readings


  • David Fischer. History of the IAEA. Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), 1997.
  • Richard Rhodes. Arsenals of Folly: The Making of the Nuclear Arms Race. Vintage, 2007.
  • Richard Rhodes. The Making of the Atomic Bomb Simon & Schuster, 1986.
  • Glenn Seaborg. Stemming of the Tide: Arms Control in the Johnson Years (Lexington, 1971).
  • Leonard Weiss, “Atoms for Peace,” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (November/December 2003).

NPT, Review Conferences

  • Jayantha Dhanapala with Randy Rydell. Multilateral Diplomacy and the NPT (United Nations, 2005).
  • Susan B. Welch. “Delegate Perspectives on the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference,” The Nonproliferation Review (Spring/Summer 1995).
  • Tariq Rauf. “Interview with Ambassador Abdallah Bali on the 2000 NPT Review Conference,” The Nonproliferation Review (Fall/Winter 2000).
  • Tariq Rauf. “An Unequivocal Success? Implications of the NPT Review Conference,” Arms Control Today (July/August 2000).
  • Ambassador Norman A. Wulf. “Observations from the 2000 NPT Review Conference,” Arms Control Today (November 2000).
  • John Simpson and Jenny Nielsen, “The 2005 Non-Proliferation Treaty Review Conference: Mission Impossible?” The Nonproliferation Review (Summer 2005).
  • Final Documents of the 1995 NPT Review and Extension Conference and Final Document of the 2000 NPT Review Conference.

Regime Development, Issues

  • Alexei Arbatov and Vladimir Dvorkin, editors. Nuclear Deterrence and Non-Proliferation. Carnegie Moscow Center, 2006.
  • Ian Bellany. Curbing the Spread of Nuclear Weapons. Manchester University, 2005.
  • Nathan E. Busch and Daniel H. Joyner, editors. Combating Weapons of Mass Destruction. University of Georgia, 2009.
  • President George W. Bush’s address at the National Defense University, February 11, 2004.
  • Joseph Cirincione, editor. Repairing the Regime: Preventing the Spread of Weapons of Mass Destruction (Routledge, 2000).
  • Kurt M. Campbell, Robert Einhorn, and Mitchell Reiss, editors. The Nuclear Tipping Point: Why States Reconsider Their Nuclear Choices (Brookings, 2004).
  • Joseph Cirincione, Jon Wolfstahl, Miriam Rajkumer. Deadly Arsenals: Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Threats Second Edition (Carnegie, 2005).
  • Lewis A. Dunn, “Insights from the Past – ‘Wins, Losses, and Draw’,” The Nonproliferation Review (November 2006).
  • Harald Muller, David Fischer, and Wolfgang Kotter. Nuclear Non-Proliferation and Global Order. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI)/Oxford Press, 1994.
  • Multilateral Approaches to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle (INFCIRC/640).
  • George Perkovich, Jessica T. Matthews, Joseph Cirincoine, Rose Gottemoeller, Jon Wolfstahl. Universal Compliance: A Strategy for Nuclear Security (Carnegie, 2007).
  • Joseph F. Pilat, editor. Atoms for Peace: A Future After Fifty Years? Woodrow Wilson Center/The Johns Hopkins University, 2006.
  • Nina Srinivasan Rathbun, “The Role of Legitimacy in Strengthening the Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime,” The Nonproliferation Review (July 2006).
  • Lawrence Scheinman. The International Atomic Energy Agency and World Nuclear Order (Resources for the Future, 1987)Lawrence Scheinman, “Equal Opportunity: Historical Challenges and Future Prospects in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,” Arms Control Today (May 2007).
  • Victor A. Utgoff, editor. The Coming Crisis: Nuclear Proliferation, U.S. Interests, and World Order. MIT, 2000.
  • William Walker. Weapons of Mass Destruction and International Order. Adelphi Paper 370 (International Institute for Strategic Studies, 2004).

Technical Elements

  • Multilateral Approaches to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle.
  • Matthew Bunn. Securing the Bomb 2010 (Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard, 2010).
  • David Albright and Kevin O’Neill, editors. The Challenges of Fissile Material Control. Institute for Science and International Security, 1999.
  • Manson Benedict, Thomas H. Pigford and Hans Wolfgang Levi, editors, Nuclear Chemical Engineering 2nd edition (McGraw Hill, 1981).
  • Kenneth Bergeron. Tritium on Ice: The Dangerous New Alliance of Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Power. MIT, 2002.
  • Matthew Bunn and Anthony Weir. Securing the Bomb 2007 (Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard, 2007).
  • Jason D. Ellis and Geoffrey D. Kiefer. Combating Proliferators: Strategic Intelligence and Security Policy. The Johns Hopkins University, 2004.
  • David Fischer and Paul Szasz. Safeguarding the Atom. (Taylor & Francis, 1985).
  • International Panel on Fissile Materials. Global Fissile Material Report 2008. Program on Science and Global Security, Princeton University, 2008.
  • Nikolai Khlebnikov, David Parise, Julian Whichello, “Novel Technologies for the Detection of Undeclared Nuclear Activities,” IAEA-148/32, in Henry Sokolski, editor, Falling Behind International Scrutiny of the Peaceful Atom. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College/Nonproliferation Policy Education Center, February 2008.
  • Monitoring Nuclear Weapons and Nuclear Explosive Materials: An Assessment of Methods and Capabilities (National Academy Press, 2005).
  • Robert F. Mozley, The Politics and Technology of Nuclear Proliferation (University of Washington Press, 1998).
  • Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutonium. National Academy of Sciences, 1994.
  • Nuclear Energy and Nuclear Weapon Proliferation. SIPRI/Taylor & Francis, 1979.

Weapons, Disarmament

  • Canberra Commission on the Elimination of Nuclear Weapons, 30 January 1997.
  • Commission on the Strategic Posture of the United States. Interim Report 2008.
  • Joseph Cirincione. Bomb Scare: The History & Future of Nuclear Weapons (Columbia University, 2007).
  • Sarah J. Diehl and James Clay Moltz. Nuclear Weapons and Nonproliferation. ABC-CLIO, 2008.
  • Sidney D. Drell, James E. Goodby. The Gravest Danger: Nuclear Weapons. Hoover Institution, 2003.
  • Michelle A. Flournoy and Clark A. Murdock. Revitalizing the U.S. Nuclear Deterrent. CSIS, 2002.
  • Thomas Graham, Jr. Common Sense on Weapons of Mass Destruction. University of Washington/Eisenhower Institute, 2004.
  • Keith A. Hansen. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty: An Insider’s Perspective. Stanford University, 2006.
  • R. Everett Langford. Introduction to Weapons of Mass Destruction: Radiological, Chemical, and Biological. Wiley-Interscience, 2004.
  • Alexander T. J. Lennon, editor. Contemporary Nuclear Debates: Missile Defense, Arms Control, and Arms Races in the Twenty-First Century. MIT, 2002.
  • Dinshaw Mistry. Containing Missile Proliferation: Strategic Technology, Security Regimes, and International Cooperation in Arms Control. University of Washington, 2003.
  • George Perkovich. India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, 2001).
  • Owen C. W. Price and Jenifer Mackby, editors. Debating 21st Century Nuclear Issues. Center for Strategic and International Studies, 2007.
  • Stephen I. Schwartz, editor. Atomic Audit: The Costs and Consequences of U.S. Nuclear Weapons since 1940. Brookings Institution, 1998.
  • Stephen I. Schwartz with Deepti Choubey. Nuclear Security Spending: Assessing Costs, Examining Priorities. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2009.
  • George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell, and James E. Goodby, editors. Reykjavik Revisited: Steps Toward a World Free of Nuclear Weapons. Hoover Press/Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI), 2008.
  • Jeremiah D. Sullivan, “The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty,” Physics Today (March 1998).
  • Weapons of Terror. The Weapons of Mass Destruction Commission, 2006.
  • Stephen M. Younger. The Bomb: A New History. Ecco (HarperCollins), 2009.

Regional County Issues - Middle East

  • David Albright and Jacqueline Shire, “A Witches’ Brew? Evaluating Iran’s Uranium Enrichment Progress,” Arms Control Today (November 2007).
  • Yonah Alexander and Milton Hoenig. The New Iranian Leadership: Ahmadinijad, Terrorism, Nuclear Ambition, and the Middle East. Praeger, 2008.
  • Wyn Q. Bowen. Libya and Nuclear Proliferation: Stepping Back from the Brink. Adelphi Paper 380. IISS, 2006.
  • Sharam Chubin. Iran’s Nuclear Ambitions. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2006.
  • Therese Delpech. Iran and the Bomb: The Abdication of International Responsibility. Columbia University, 2007.
  • Mark Fitzpatrick. The Iranian Nuclear Crisis: Avoiding Worst-Case Outcomes. Adelphi Paper 398. IISS, 2008.
  • Richard L. Garwin, “When Could Iran Deliver a Nuclear Weapon?” Bulletin of Atomic Scientists (March/April 2008).
  • Iran’s Strategic Weapons Programmes: A Net Assessment. IISS Strategic Dossier. IISS, 2005.
  • Michael Karpin. The Bomb in the Basement: How Israel Went Nuclear and What that Means for the World. Simon & Schuster, 2006.
  • Jean E. Krasno and James S. Sutterlin. The United Nations and Iraq: Defanging the Viper. Praeger, 2003.
  • Nuclear Programmes in the Middle East: In the Shadow of Iran. IISS Strategic Dossier. IISS, 2008.
  • James A. Russell. Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction in the Middle East: Directions and Policy Options in the New Century. Palgrave Macmillan, 2006.
  • Henry Sokolski, Patrick Clawson, editors. Getting Ready for a Nuclear-Ready Iran. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2005.
  • Etel Solingen. Nuclear Logics: Contrasting Paths in East Asia and the Middle East. Princeton University, 2007.

South Asia

  • David Armstrong and Joseph Trento. America and the Islamic Bomb: Deadly Compromise. Steerforth Press, 2007.
  • Gordon Corera. Shopping for Bombs: Nuclear Proliferation, Global Insecurity, and the Rise and Fall of the A. Q. Khan Network. Oxford University, 2006.
  • Douglas Frantz and Catherine Collins. The Nuclear Jihadist. Twelve, 2007.
  • Sumit Ganguly and Davin T. Hagarty. Fearful Symmetry: India-Pakistan Crises in the Shadow of Nuclear Weapons. University of Washington, 2005.
  • S. Paul Karpur. Dangerous Deterrent: Nuclear Weapons Proliferation and Conflict in South Asia. Stanford University, 2007.
  • Adrian Levy and Catherine Scott-Clark. Deception. Walker and Company, 2007. [about A.Q. Khan]
  • Prakash Karat. Subordinate Ally: The Nuclear Deal and India-U.S. Strategic Relations. LeftWord Books, 2007.
  • Michael Krepon, Rodney W. Jones, and Ziad Haider, editors. Escalation Control and the Nuclear Option in South Asia. Stimson Center, 2004.
  • Michael Krepon. Nuclear Risk Reduction in South Asia. Palgrave Macmillan, 2004.
  • Kamal Martinuddin. The Nuclearization of South Asia. Oxford University, 2002.
  • C. Raja Mohan. Impossible Allies: Nuclear India, United States, and the Global Order. India Research Press, 2006.
  • Nuclear Black Markets: Pakistan, A.Q. Khan and the Rise of Proliferation Networks. IISS Strategic Dossier. IISS, 2007.
  • George Perkovich. India’s Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation. University of California Berkeley, 2001.
  • D. R. SarDesai and Raju G. C. Thomas, editors. Nuclear India in the Twenty-first Century. Palgrave, 2002.
  • Henry Sokolski. Gauging US-Indian Strategic Cooperation. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, 2007.
  • E. Sridharan, editor. The India-Pakistan Nuclear Relationship: Theories of Deterrence and International Relations. Routledge, 2007.

North Korea & East Asia

  • Richard Broinowski. Fact or Fission: The Truth About Australia’s Nuclear Ambitions. Scribe Publications, 2003.
  • Gordon G. Chang. Nuclear Showdown: North Korea Takes on the World. Random House, 2006.
  • Mike Chinoy. Meltdown: The Inside Story of the North Korean Nuclear Crisis. St. Martin’s, 2008.
  • Yoichi Funabashi. The Peninsula Question: A Chronicle of the Second Korean Nuclear Crisis. Brookings Institution, 2007.
  • Bates Gill. Rising Star: China’s New Security Diplomacy. Brookings Institution, 2007.
  • Jeffrey G. Lewis. The Minimum Means of Reprisal: China’s Search for Security in the Nuclear Age. American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 2007.
  • Evan S. Medeiros. Reluctant Restraint: The Evolution of China’s Nonproliferation Policies and Practices, 1980-2004. Stanford University, 2007.
  • Michael O’Hanlon and Mike Mochizuki. Crisis on the Korean Peninsula. Brookings Institution, 2003.
  • Charles L. Pritchard. Failed Diplomacy. Brookings Institution, 2007. [about North Korea]
  • Gary Samore, editor. North Korea’s Weapons Programmes: A Net Assessment. Palgrave/Macmillan, 2004.
  • Benjamin L. Self and Jeffrey W. Thompson. Japan’s Nuclear Option: Security, Politics, and Policy in the 21st Century. Stimson Center, 2003.
  • Etel Solingen. Nuclear Logics: Contrasting Paths in East Asia and the Middle East. Princeton University, 2007.
  • Joel S. Wit, Daniel B. Poneman, and Robert Gallucci. Going Critical: The First North Korean Nuclear Crisis. Brookings Institution, 2004.


  • Graham Allison, Owen Cote, Jr., Richard Falkenrath, and Steven Miller. Avoiding Nuclear Anarchy: Containing the Threat of Loose Nuclear Weapons and Fissile Material. Center for Science and International Affairs (Harvard University Kennedy School of Government) Studies in International Security, The MIT Press, 1996.
  • Pierre Goldschmidt. U.S.-Russia Strategic Partnership Against Nuclear Proliferation: From Declaration to Action. CSIS, 2008.
  • James Clay Moltz, Vladimir A. Orlov, Adam N. Stulberg, editors. Preventing Nuclear Meltdown: Managing Decentralization of Russia’s Nuclear Complex. Ashgate, 2004.

WMD Threats/Terrorism

  • Graham Allison. Confronting the Specter of Nuclear Terrorism. Sage, 2006.
  • Graham Allison. Nuclear Terrorism: The Ultimate Preventable Catastrophe. Times Books, 2004.
  • Matthew E. Busch. No End in Sight. University of Kentucky, 2004.
  • Brian G. Chow and Kenneth A. Solomon. Limiting the Spread of Weapons Usable Fissile Materials. Rand, 1993.
  • Jim A. Davis and Barry R. Schneider, editors. Avoiding the Abyss: Progress, Shortfalls, and the Way Ahead in Combating the WMD Threat. United States Air Force Counterproliferation Center, March 2005.
  • Charles D. Ferguson et al. The Four Faces of Nuclear Terrorism. Monterey/CNS, 2004.
  • Brian D. Finlay. Nuclear Terrorism: U.S. Policies to Reduce the Threat of Nuclear Terror. Stimson Center, 2008.
  • Robin M. Frost. Nuclear Terrorism after 9/11. Adelphi Paper 378. IISS, 2005.
  • James L. Ford and C. Richard Schuller. Controlling Threats to Nuclear Security. National Defense University, 1997.
  • Jacques E. C. Hymans. The Psychology of Nuclear Proliferation. Cambridge University, 2006.
  • Barry R. Schneider. Future War and Counterproliferation: U.S. Military Responses to NBC Proliferation Threats. Praeger, 1999.
  • Barry R. Schneider and Jerrold M. Post, editors. Know Thy Enemy: Profiles of Adversary Leaders and Their Strategic Cultures. USAF Counterproliferation Center, November 2002.
  • Derek D. Smith. Deterring America: Rogue States and the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction. Cambridge University, 2006.
  • Henry D. Sokolski. Best of Intentions: America’s Campaign Against Strategic Weapons Proliferation. Praeger, 2001.
  • World at Risk. The Report of the Commission on the Prevention of WMD Proliferation and Terrorism. Vintage, 2008.

Useful Websites

Need Assistance?

Please contact the course coordinator if you have questions or would like further information.

Maia Gemmill