Raymond Davis Jr., member of BNL's Chemistry Division for more than 35 years and co-winner of the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics for the detection of solar neutrinos.
Basic research on solar neutrinos has a long history in the Brookhaven Chemistry Division. This group initiated and operated the pioneering experiments that first uncovered the famous solar neutrino deficit using chemical detection of nuclear transformations induced by solar neutrinos using 615 tons of C2Cl4, and later participated in the GALLEX solar neutrino experiments in Gran Sasso, Italy where 30 tons of Gallium comprised the neutrino detector. The pioneering experiments conducted in the Homestake Mine, Lead, South Dakota, led to the awarding of the 2002 Nobel Prize in Physics to Raymond Davis, Jr., the founder of this group.
The Neutrino Research Group was a participant in the very successful solar neutrino detector, the Solar Neutrino Observatory (SNO) in Sudbury, Ontario. The neutrino detection medium in SNO is 1000-metric-tons of D2O, which is valued at ~US$ 300 Millions. The SNO "solved" the forty years old, solar-neutrino-problem by demonstrating that two-thirds of the electron neutrinos emitted by the Sun transformed into the two other flavors, tau and mu, neutrinos.
The group is current members of several international collaborations: (1) Low Energy Neutrino Spectroscopy (LENS); the real-time detection of the lowest energy neutrinos from the Sun, (2) SNO+, neutrinoless double-beta decay of Nd-150, (3) Daya Bay reactor antineutrino experiment; a 1% precision of theta-13 measurement; and (4) the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE).
Newly initiated R&D activities include reactor monitoring and non-proliferation applications and water-based liquid scintillators.