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Advanced UV and X-ray Probes

The CFN operates three end-stations at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) for nanomaterials characterization. The station located at the X9 beamline performs simultaneous small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering experiments for nano-scale structural characterization of a variety of materials. The Ambient Pressure X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-XPS) station located at beamline X1A1 is capable of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy for quantitative surface chemical analysis of a range of materials at gas pressures up to about 1 Torr.

Advanced UV and X-ray Probes

Capabilities / Major Equipment

Small-angle and Wide-angle X-ray Scattering for structural probing on length scales from less than 1 nm to ~ 300 nm in crystals, powders, solutions and soft materials in a controlled environment. The set-up is capable of resonant scattering (7 keV to 20 keV), grazing-incidence measurements (GISAXS and GIXD) on thin films; simultaneous SAXS/WAXS; microbeam SAXS (down to 20 microns); and time-resolved SAXS at up to 30 frames per second, with sample-detector distances of up to 5 m.

Ambient Pressure Photoelectron Spectroscopy (AP-PES) at the CFN endstation allows surface chemical analysis via core-level photoelectron spectroscopy (including XPS and XAS) at gas pressures up to ~ 3 Torr and sample temperatures up to 500 °C. High-end applications include in-operando studies of surface chemistry, catalysis, and energy storage processes. The endstation is located at beamline CSX-2 of the new National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II). The AP-PES endstation is expected to start science commissioning in February 2015 and general user operations by the fall of 2015. The photon energy range of the beamline is 250 eV to 2 keV, covering the O 1s, N 1s and C 1s core levels as well as many transition metal core levels. Differential pumping allows for gas pressures in the Torr range at the sample while maintaining ultrahigh vacuum conditions in the analyzer. Suitable sample types include single crystals, foils, and powders. Future upgrades of the end station are aimed at achieving working pressures approaching 1 Atmosphere and implementing polarization-modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy in the same system. These upgrades are expected to be finalized by the end of 2017.

Endstation Details

CFN SAXS/GISAXS Endstation at NSLS-II

Contact: Kevin Yager

Upcoming Project: Complex Materials Scattering (CMS) Endstation at NSLS-II

The CFN is a partner user on the Complex Materials Scattering (CMS) beamline at Brookhaven's new, world-class synchrotron: the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).  The CMS beamline will be dedicated to structural studies of complex materials, including nanomaterials, soft matter, and biomolecular assemblies.  The CMS beamline will provide robust x-ray scattering capabilities across a wide q-range (simultaneous SAXS/WAXS) and at hard energies (10 keV to 17 keV); enabling both transmission-mode and reflection-mode (GISAXS and GIXD) measurements of molecular-scale and nano-scale order.  The instrument will thus be ideally-suited to studies of hybrid and hierarchical materials. In the longer-term, CMS will be developing capabilities for materials discovery.  Specifically, automation and sophisticated data analysis will enable the 'intelligent exploration' of the vast parameter spaces encountered in complex, multi-component materials.  Design and construction of the beamline is ongoing.  The beamline is expected to become available for general user proposals in mid-2016.

Upcoming Project: Soft Matter Interfaces (SMI) Endstation at NSLS-II

The CFN is a partner user on the Soft Matter Interfaces (SMI) beamline at Brookhaven's new, world-class synchrotron: the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II).  The SMI beamline will provide world-leading capabilities to study the structure, energetics, and assembly of soft materials, in particular focusing on the critical role of interfaces.  SMI will be a high-flux undulator-based beamline with excellent focusing and energy-tuning capabilities.  SMI will enable simultaneous probing of small-angle and wide-angle scattering (GISAXS and GIWAXS), allowing correlating between molecular and nanoscale properties.  The tunable x-ray energy range (2.1 keV to 24 keV) will enable unprecedented studies at resonant edges relevant to soft matter (P, S, K, Ca, etc.).  The micro-focusing capabilities (~2 μm spatial resolution) will enable mapping of heterogeneous materials or assemblies, including in-operado studies of energy devices.  State-of-the-art detectors will enable high-speed (millisecond) studies of processing kinetics, and material interconversions.  Design and construction of the beamline is ongoing.  The beamline is expected to become available for general user proposals in mid-2017.

Completed Project: X9 X-ray Scattering Endstation at NSLS

The CFN acted as a contributing user to the X9 beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), from its inception to final operations (2009-2014).  This high-performance undulator beamline was optimized for simultaneous small-angle (SAXS) and wide-angle (WAXS) x-ray scattering experiments, including reflection-mode analysis (GISAXS and GIXD). This suite of techniques enabled probing material structure across molecular- and nano- scales. The CFN/X9 program was highly successful, allowing hundreds of scientists to perform in-depth studies of their materials, including under in-situ conditions (e.g. control of sample temperature and ambient atmosphere). The instrument was used for demanding  solution studies, including of biomolecules, nanoparticles, and nanoscale lattices. Reflection-mode measurements empowered detailed studies on a variety of nanostructured thin films, including block-copolymers, lithographic patterns, and mesoporous materials. Hybrid and hierarchical materials were also studied in detail. For instance, numerous solar-cell materials, including organic photovoltaics, CIGS, and perovskites, were measured at X9. With the shutdown of NSLS on September 30, 2014, the X9 beamline equipment is being transitioned to a new beamline at NSLS-II.