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NSRL User Guide

III. Technical Data

Beam Ion Species and Energies

Ion Species [1] Max Energy [2]
(MeV/n)
LET in H2O at Max Energy
(keV/micron)
Peak LET
(keV/micron)
Range in H2O
(mm)
Maximum Intensity [3]
(ions per spill)
H 2500 0.206 84.3 10490 2.2 x 1011
He3 1500 0.83 237 4170 0.3 x 1010
He4 1500 0.84 237 5550 0.3 x 10^10
Li7 1500 1.8 375 4340 4 x 109
C12 1500 7.55 922 1856 1.2 x 1010
O16 1500 13.4 1306 1391 0.4 x 1010
Ne20 1500 20.97 1637 1113 0.10 x 1010
Si28 1500 41.1 2519 795 0.3 x 1010
Cl35 1500 60.6 3046 674 0.2 x 1010
Ar40 1500 68 3268 687 0.02 x 1010
Ti48 1500 101.5 3924 552 0.08 x 1010
Fe56 1470 142 4706 449 0.2 x 1010
Kr84 721 314 6221 132 2.0 x 107
Zr91 300 565 6904 29.3 1 x 106
Nb93 300 594 6690 28.0 1 x 106
Xe132 589 761 9788 68.3 5.0 x 107
Ta181 342 1745 12300 22.7 3.0 x 108
Au197 400 1865 13140 27.7 1 x 108
Sequential Field Various Various Various Various Various
Solar Particle Event [5] Various Various Various Various Various
GCR Simulation Various Various Various Various Various
Ion Species [1] Max Energy [2]
(MeV/n)
LET in Si at Max Energy [6]
(MeV/(mg/cm2))
Peak LET in Si
(MeV/(mg/cm2))
Range in Si
(mm)
Max Flux [3]
(ions/spill)
H1 2500 0.00171 0.51 5470 2.2x1011
He3 1500 0.006679 1.5 2220 0.3 x 1010
He4 1500 0.006919 1.5 2960 0.3 x 1010
Li7 1500 0.01557 2.3 2274 4x109
C12 1500 0.06227 5.2 972 1.2x1010
O16 1500 0.1107 7.3 729 0.4x1010
Ne20 1500 0.173 9 583 1.2x1010
Si28 1500 0.339 14 417 0.3x1010
Cl35 1500 0.4999 17.4 353 0.2x1010
Ar40 1500 0.5605 18.7 360 0.02x1010
Ti48 1500 0.8372 24.2 289 0.08x1010
Fe56 1470 1.171 29.3 235 0.2x1010
Kr84 721 2.54 41 70.5 2.0x107
Zr91 300 4.58 48.5 15.6 1 x 106
Nb93 300 4.8 47.4 15.4 1 x 106
Xe132 589 6.1 69.2 36.6 5.0x107
Ta181 342 14.8 87.5 12.1 3.0x108
Au197 400 15.0 94.2 14.9 1.0x108
Sequential Field Various Various Various Various Various
Solar Particle Event Various Various Various Various Various
GCR Simulation Various Various Various Various Various

[1] Different isotopes of some ions are also available.  With the commissioning of EBIS, the Electron Beam Ion Source and the Laser Ion Source, virtually all ion species can be available.

[2] In general it has become fairly routine to change beam energy, and if a beam energy is not listed in this table, there is not necessarily any reason why it cannot be tuned up at the request of a user.

[3] Intensity per spill refers to the number of ions delivered each spill.  The spill structure during most radiobiology exposures has a 4 second repetition time.  During the 4 second period, the ions are extracted more or less uniformly in time during a 0.3-0.4 second spill, followed by a ~3.6 second beam-off time.  For protons, the maximum beam intensity is delivered when using the LINAC as the ion source.  If using the Tandem as the ion source instead, the maximum proton beam intensity is 2.5 x 1011 protons per spill.

[4] LET, or Linear Energy Transfer is calculated for a water target and is in units of keV per micron.  More detailed LET distributions can be viewed here.

[5] SPE: The August of 1972 solar proton event (SPE) represents one of the largest events on record and the simulated spectra will consists of protons from a few 10's of MeV to 1 GeV that will approximately represent the Joseph King fit to the observed spectra given by the following equation

Φ(E) = 2.98x108  e-(E-30)/26.5

where E is the proton energy in MeV. The September and October 1989 events represent spectra with larger contributions from high energy protons and will be represented by the integral rigidity spectra

Φ(R)= N e-R/R0

with R0 = 110 MV.

For guidance on expected energy spectra of protons and secondaries behind tissue or other experimental materials including simulation of spacecraft shielding please contact BNL or NASA JSC staff.

[6] LET, or Linear Energy Transfer is calculated for a silicon target, and is in units of MeV-cm2/mg. Graph of Range in silicon versus LET (.pdf)

NSRL is available to operate blocks of time for SPE simulations in either the standard (20x20 cm2) or a large beam configuration (60x60 cm2). BNL staff will work with approved experiments to facilitate beam sharing during the large beam SPE blocks.